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2015年考研英语——看阅读记单词(2)

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2014-04-22 18:32:51

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  To paraphrase 18th-century statesman Edmund Burke, all that is needed for the triumph of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing. “One such cause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in research. Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances in heath knowledge and care. Leaders of the animal rights movement target biomedical research because it depends on public funding, and few people understand the process of health care research. Hearing allegations of cruelty to animals in research settings, many are perplexed that anyone would deliberately harm an animal.

  For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights booth at a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers not to use anything that opposed immunizations; she wanted to know if vaccines come from animal research. When assured that they do, she replied, “Then I would have to say yes.” Asked what will happen when epidemics return, she said, “Don’t worry, scientists will find some way of using computers.” Such well-meaning people just don’s understand.

  Scientists must communicate their message to the public in a compassionate, understandable way in human terms, not in the language of molecular biology. We need to make clear the connection between animal research and a grandmother’s hip replacement, a father’s bypass operation, a baby’s vaccinations, and even a pet’s shots. To those who are unaware that animal research was needed to produce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animal research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst.

  Much can be done. Scientists could “adopt” middle school classes and present their own research. They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth. Research institutions could be opened to tours; to show that laboratory animals receive humane care. Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community should actively recruit to its cause not only well-known personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research, but all who receive medical treatment. If good people do nothing there is a real possibility that an uninformed citizenry will extinguish the precious embers of medical progress.

  译文

  为了解释18世纪政治家爱蒙德·伯克的话,“被误导的运动要想成功,所需的只是好人不作为。”现在,就有这样的运动寻求终止生化研究,其依据是动物有权要求人们在研究活动中不再被使用的理论。科学家应该对动物权利倡导者做出有力的反击,因为这些人的观点正在蛊惑公众,从而威胁到了保健知识与医疗的发展。动物权利运动的领导者之所以将目标对准生化研究,是因为生化研究依赖公共基金,而且几乎没有人理解保健医疗研究的作用。听到有关在研究中残忍对待动物的断言,许多人感到困惑,以为任何人都会故意去伤害动物。

  比如,在最近的一次街头集市上,一位在动物权利保护摊位服务的老太太在分发小册子,鼓励读者不要使用任何来自于动物或在动物身上做过实验的任何东西。当问及她是否反对免疫接种时,她说她想知道疫苗是否来自于动物实验。当确信疫苗是来自于动物试验时,她回答说:“那么,我得说我反对。”当问及如果流行病卷土重来该怎么办时,她说:“不用担心,科学家会利用计算机找到某种解决办法的。”这样的好心人只是不了解情况。

  科学家必须用一种富于同情,易于理解的方式将信息传递给公众——用人性化的语言不是分子生物学的术语。我们必须澄清动物研究与祖母的髋骨置换、父亲的旁道管手术、小孩的免疫接种甚至宠物的防疫注射之间的关系。对于那些不了解只有通过动物研究才能研制出治疗方案、才能开发出新方案和新疫苗的人来说,动物研究说得好听一点是浪费,说得难听一点是残忍。

  有许多事情可以做到。科学家可以“走进”中学课堂,介绍他们的科研活动。他们应尽快答复邮寄给编辑的来信,以防动物权利组织的错误信息没有引起质疑,从而蒙蔽真理。研究机构也应该向游客开放,以表明实验室的动物受到了人道地对待。最后,因为最有利害关系是病人,所以,医学研究界不仅要邀请像史蒂芬·库伯(他已经就动物的研究价值发表了勇敢的声明)那样的知名人士来支持自己的事业,还要邀请所有接受过医疗的人来支持自己。如果医学研究人员再不采取行动,不明真理的公众真有可能会不灭医疗发展的宝贵火种。

  词汇

  Advocate n. 倡议者,鼓吹者 v. 提倡,鼓吹

  派生:avocation n. 拥护,支持 advocator n. 拥护者,提倡者 advocatory a. 拥护者的

  例句:I don’t advocate your going there. 我不主张你去那里。

  词组:advocate of sth. ……的支持者,拥护者‘

  辨析:advocate, propose

  advocate 指提倡,提议,后常接名词或动词做宾语;propose 指提议,可接名词,动名词或动词不定式做宾语。

  Allegation n. 声称,宣称

  派生:allege v. 宣称,提出 alleged a. 被说成的,被断言的

  例句:The minister issued a prompt denial of the allegation against him. 部长迅速否认对他的不利断言。

  Argument n. 争论,辩论;论据,论点

  派生:argue v. 争论,辩论;主张;说服

  例句:Have any statistics that would enforce your argument? 你有加强你论点的统计资料吗?

  词组:have an argument with sb. about sth. 与某人就某事意见不一;It is beyond argument that ……是无可争议的

  Booth n. 电话亭,货摊

  例句:He went into the phone booth and dialed the number. 他走进电话亭拨了号码。

  Brochure n. 小册子

  例句:Here are some travel brochures. 这里有一些旅游小册子。

  Bypass n. 旁路,迂回的旁道 v. 迂回

  例句:Let’s bypass the town. 我们绕过这座小镇吧!

  Deceptive a. 欺骗的,蒙蔽的

  派生:deceive v. 欺骗,蒙蔽 deceit n. 欺骗,欺骗行为

  例句:The thickness of Madeline's letter proved deceptive. 梅德琳的厚信原来是骗人的。

  Deliberate a. 故意的,深思熟虑的 v. 仔细考虑,商议

  派生:deliberation n. 细审,审慎

  例句:He deliberated the question before he made an answer. 得出答案前,他仔细地考虑了这个问题。

  词组:deliberate over/about/upon 仔细考虑;take deliberate action 采取谨慎的行动

  Epidemic n. 流行病,传播 a. 流行性,传染的

  例句:We should take steps to avoid the epidemic disease. 我们应该采取措施阻止这种流行性疾病。

  Extinguish v. 熄灭,消灭

  派生:extinguishable a. 可熄灭的,可绝灭的 extinguisher n. 熄灭者,灭火器

  例句:His hope has been extinguished. 他的希望破灭了。

  词组:extinguish a fire 灭火;extinguish one’s faith 使信念破灭

  Immunization n. 免疫

  派生:immune a. 免疫的,有免疫力的;不受影响的;免除的

  例句:Have you had physical exams and immunization? 你有没有体检和注射过疫苗?

  词组:immunization to 对……有免疫力;immunization from 免除,豁免

  Lest conj. 唯恐,免得

  例句:We talked in a low voice lest we should wake the baby up. 我们小声说话以免吵醒婴儿。

  同义词:in case, for fear that

  Misguided a. 误导的

  派生:misguide v. 误导

  例句:It is misguided of him to pay his son’s debts. 他替儿子还债,这太不明智了。

  Perplex v. 使困惑,使复杂化

  派生:perplexity n. 困惑,茫然 perplexed a. 困惑的,茫然的

  例句:They are worried and perplexed by his behavior. 他的举止使他们既担心又困惑。

  同义词:puzzle, confuse

  Paraphrase n. 释意,意译,解述

  例句:Paraphrase the ancient Chinese prose in colloquialism language. 把这篇古文译成白话文。

  词组:the paraphrase of ……的释意

  Recruit v. 招募(新兵),招收(新成员);补充,使恢复正常的状态 n. 新兵,新成员

  派生:recruitment n. 招募

  例句:The recruit was all eagerness to go to the front. 新入伍的战士迫切盼望上前线。

  词组:recruit new members 吸收新成员

  Triumph n. 胜利,成功 v. 得胜,战胜

  派生:triumphant a. 得胜的,得意洋洋的

  例句:They achieved a great triumph. 他们获得了很大的成功。

  词组:triumph over 战胜

  Ultimate a. 最后的,最终的,根本的

  派生:ultimately ad. 最终,终于

  例句:This is the ultimate result of their labors. 这是他们最终的劳动成果。

  辨析:final, last, concluding, ultimate

  final 简单地表示结束,经常含有决定或确定的意思;last 表示一系列中结尾,即时间上或顺序的最后;concluding 表示结束,含有决定或安排的意思;ultimate 表示达到最后的极限,多用于表达强烈的决心,没有任何余地。

  Uniform n. 制服,军服 a. 全都相同的,一律的

  例句:The staff at this hotel wear uniform clothing. 这家饭店的员工穿统一的制服。

2015年考研英语:英语Ⅰ和英语Ⅱ题型差异详解

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