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2015年考研英语——看阅读记单词(6)

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2014-04-22 18:32:51

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  Planet Earth will do an electronic skin in the not-too-distance future. It will use the internet as a scaffold to transmit its sensations. This skin is being stitched together. It consists of millions of electronic measuring devices, such as thermostats, pollution detectors, cameras, EKGs. These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere, and our ships, highway vehicles, and our bodies. For a decade or longer there will be no central nervous system to manage this vast signaling network. And there will be no central intelligence. But we believe that some qualities of self-awareness will emerge once the Net is sensually enhanced and emulated the complexity of the human brain.

  Sensuality is only one force pushing the Net toward intelligence. An eerie symbiosis of human and machine effort is also starting to evolve. The Internet creates a channel for thousands of programmers around the world to collaborate on software development and debugging. Through collaboration, this community can push past the technical barriers to machine intelligence.

  And though silicon networks today look nothing like the brain, nodes of the Net have begun to function as neuron. Researchers have already tackled complex computing problems, such as interpreting interstellar radio signals with about a million PCs working in concert. Before long, discrete microprocessors will probably be knitted together into ad hoc distributed computers. Don’t think of these as PC networks. The terminals would just as likely be cell phones of palm-like devices, each one far smarter than today’s heftiest desktops. We may think of this as a whole ecology, an information environment that’s massively connected.

  Humanity is now preparing to cast its net across the solar system. At a NASA laboratory in California, scientists are devising a version of the Internet called Inter Planet that will weave the moon, Mars, and some asteroids and comets into the earth’s expanding nervous system.

  Today’s communications between earth and unmanned probes are expensive, proprietary, and complex. With Inter Planet, we can simplify everything, cut costs, and engage the public more effectively. Then, the earth’s telemetric body will span the reaches of the solar system. The Net may not experience all the human thrills of exploration, but it will feel some tingles up and down its spine.

  译文

  在不太遥远的将来,地球将被上一层电子皮肤。地球将利用因特网作为框架来传输它的感觉。这张电子皮肤正在缝合。它由数以百万计的电子测量仪组成,例如恒温计、污染检测器、摄像机、心电图仪等。这些测量仪将对城市、濒临灭绝的物种、大气层、轮船、高速公路上行驶的车辆和人体进行探测和监视。在10年或更长的时间里,不会有中枢神经系统来管理这一庞大的新号网络,不会出现中枢智能。但我们相信,一旦这张网络的感觉能力得到提高并能模拟人脑的复杂功能,某些自我意识的性能就会随之而来。

  官能性只是驱动网络智能化的一种力量。一种怪诞可怕的人机共生现象已开始出现。因特网为世界各地成千上万的编程人员在软件的开发与测试方面进行合作提供了一个渠道这种协作可以使软件编程界越过技术障碍,向机器智能的方向迈进。

  虽然今天的硅片网络看上去和大脑并没有任何相似之处,但是网络节点已开始发挥类似神经元的作用。研究人员早已解决了复杂的计算问题,例如通过约100万台个人电脑协同计算,来解译星际无线电信号用不了多久,分散的微处理器可能被编织在一起,组成一台台执行特定任务的计算机。不要把这类系统认作是个人电脑网络,它们的终端机很可能是一些手掌般的手机,其智能程度远远超过如今最先进的台式计算机。我们可以把这种系统看作为一个完整的生态圈系统,一种大规模连结的信息环境。

  人类正准备把自己的网络撒向整个太阳系。美国国家航空宇航局设在加利福尼亚州的一家实验室的科学家们正在设计一种“星际网”的互联网,该网将把月球、火星、一些小行星和彗星编入日益扩展的地球神经系统。

  目前地球与无人驾驶之间的通信不仅费用昂贵,而且信息专有、操作复杂。有了星际网后,我们可以简化所有程序,降低成本,能更有效地使公众入网。到了那个时侯,地球的遥测体将遍布整个太阳系。网络可能体会不到人类所有的激情,但其脊椎的上下会感觉到某些激动的震颤。

  词汇

  Atmosphere n. 大气,空气;气氛;环境;大气压

  派生:atmospheric a. 大气的,空气的;有气氛的,产生气氛的

  例句:The atmosphere was reminiscent of spy movies. 那气氛使人联想起间谍电影

  Barrier n. 栅栏,屏障;障碍

  例句:They have overcome all the language barriers. 他们已经克服了所有的语言障碍。

  Consist v. 在于,存在于;由……组成,由……构成

  派生:consistent a. 坚持的,一贯的;一致的,符合的(with)

  例句:The beehives consist of numerous cells. 蜂巢是由无数的小窝所组成的。

  词组:consist in 在于;consist of 包括;consist with 符合

  Collaborate v. 协作,合作

  派生:collaboration n. 合作,协作;勾结

  例句:He collaborated with his brothers on the restaurant. 他和他的兄弟们合伙经营这家饭店。

  辨析:cooperate, collaborate

  cooperate 指为了共同的利益或目标而合作,协作;collaborate 尤其指在智力方面的合作,有勾结敌人的意思。

  Complexity n. 复杂性,复杂的事物

  派生:complex a. 复杂的;合成的,综合的

  例句:Can you solve the problem of great complexity? 你能解决这个极其复杂的问题吗?

  反义词:simplicity

  Debug v. 检测并非除计算机程序中的障碍,调试

  例句:We began to debug the equipment and dispose assembly room at once. 我们也事不宜迟,马上开始调试设备,布置会场。

  Device n. 装备,设备,仪表;方法,设计

  例句:This is a device for squaring the circle. 这是一个不可能实现的方案。

  词组:a device for opening cans 开罐头的装置

  辨析:apparatus, device, appliance, instrument

  apparatus 指复杂精密的装置及设备;device 指简单的装置;appliance 指家用电器设备;instrument 指精密,结构复杂的工具,也指用来完成一项工作或实现某一目标的工具。

  Discrete a. 分离的,截然分开的

  例句:A project's objectives are usually very clear cut and often divisible into discrete component parts. 项目的目标通常十分明确,并且可以分解成若干个子项目。

  Ecology n. 生态,生态学

  例句:He started to study ecology and decided to devote his whole life to the science. 他开始研究生态学,并决心将他的一生献身于这门科学。

  Emulate v. 赶超别人;与某人竞争

  派生:emulation n. 竞争;赶超

  例句:She tries to emulate her elder sister at playing the piano. 她试图在演奏钢琴上赶超她的姐姐。

  Enhance v 提高,增强

  例句:This visit enhances mutual understanding between the countries. 这次访问增进了两国的相互了解。

  辨析:elevate, enhance

  elevate 提高,将一物从低处移向高处,提高修养;enhance 提高,增进,通常指价值、美、声望。

  Intelligence n. 智力,聪明;理解力;情报

  派生:intelligent a. 聪明的,明智的

  例句:Hard work can often make up for a lack of intelligence. 勤奋工作往往可以弥补智力的不足。

  Microprocessor n. 微处理器

  例句:Clearly, this is virtually never the case in a microprocessor system. 显然,这种情况在微处理器系统中实际上是永远不会出现的。

  Scaffold n. 建筑架;绞架,断头台

  例句:The worker fell down from the scaffold. 那个工人从脚手架掉了下来。

  Sensation n.感觉,知觉;激动,轰动

  派生:sense n. 感觉功能;辨别,理解;识别力,常识;道理 sensational a. 轰动的;极好的 senseless a. 无意义的;愚蠢的;失去知觉的

  例句:Cold can cause a loss of sensation in the fingers and toes. 寒冷能使手指和脚趾失去知觉。

  Silicon n. 硅

  例句:The silicon chips are less than a millimeter thick. 这些硅片厚度不足一毫米。

  Spine n. 脊柱,脊椎

  派生:spineless a. 无脊椎的

  例句:He fell off the horse and hurt his spine. 他从马上掉下来,伤了脊椎。

  Stitch v. 缝合 n. 一针,针脚

  例句:She is stitching the shirt for her son by the weak light. 她借着微弱的灯光给儿子缝衬衫。

  Tackle v. 处理,解决,对付 n. 滑车;用具,器械

  例句:I am prepared to help you in a comprehensive scheme to tackle this. 我打算帮助你制定一个全盘计划来处理此事。

  词组:tackle about/over sth. 提起尴尬之事

  Terminal n. 终点站;终端,接线端;计算机终端

  派生:terminate v. 中止,结束

  例句:We are going to have our terminal examination next week. 下周我们要期末考试了。

  词组:terminate a contract 接触合同

  Thermostat n. 自动调温器,恒温器

  例句:She adjusted the thermostat. 她调整了一下空调器。

  Transmit v. 传播,发射;传递,传导

  派生:transmission n. 播送,发射;传动,传送 transmitter n. 传达者,发报机

  例句:A telegram will be the quickest way to transmit the message. 打电报将是传递这个信息的最快途径。

  词组:transmit sth. to 传播,遗传

  vehicles n. 车辆,交通工具;媒介,载体

  例句:Police intercepted the traffic on the roads to examine vehicles under suspicion. 警察在路上截住交通,以搜查可疑的车辆。

2015年考研英语:英语Ⅰ和英语Ⅱ题型差异详解            

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