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2015考研英语考场答题黄金法则

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2014-12-26 17:08:45

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  考试即将临近,同学们在上场前在牢记一下做题的黄金法则吧,遇到难题怪题心里不慌张,尤其对于试卷中的客观题,一旦不会做,要善于启用迂回战术拿分。所谓迂回战术就是利用选择题本身正确答案的特征和规律,进行科学的猜蒙。

  一、阅读理解正确选项特征要牢记

  1.正确答案必须符合文章中心及作者的立场

  符合文章中心思想或作者立场的是正确答案。如果某一选项与中心思想一致,它很可能是正确答案。

  2.合常理,合逻辑为正确答案的几率较大

  阅读理解的选项对应的是对文章的理解而且考研的文章摘自于西方的公开的期刊杂志,文章的体裁通常都是议论文或说明文,所以正确选项必然也应是合科学性和逻辑性的观点,而且研究生入学考试作为国内较高层次的考试,试题的命制自然需对考生是积极向上的导向。

  3.表达留有余地,含义不肯定的为正确答案的几率较大

  含义肯定、绝对的一般不是答案,含义不肯定的可能是答案。这是由于一旦把自己的观点过于绝对化,当新的异常情况发生,就会陷入无可挽回的余地,而不肯定的选项却因为涵盖面宽,容易成为答案。

  4.概括的可以统领全部文意的是解,考查考生的理解归纳能力

  简单具体,含义肤浅的不是答案,抽象、概括、深刻的可能是答案。

  5.同义替换的一般是正确答案,照抄原文的不是正确答案

  "偷天换日"是出题人常用的伎俩,利用考生做题时间紧,很多细节来不及细看,甚至来不及将所有的四个选项看完这一薄弱之处,将干扰项做成与原文句子结构及词汇都几乎一模一样的形式,只略微改动其中的一个词或几个词,从而造成意思上的变化;或者利用原文中的词来伪造选项或断章取义,使干扰项亦真亦假,是非难辨。这种干扰项多半是前半句甚至是前大半句是原文内容,只是换个最后几个词,让人防不胜防。我们在做题时就得心中有数,对照抄原文的选项要小心上当,而需对原文词句的同义替换选项敏感。

  二、牢记完型优选词,扭转乾坤

  通过对历年真题的研究,完形填空中"however,for,while,whereas,subject,available,affect,access"容易作为正确选项,可以优先选择。如果试题中出现优选词,再根据正确选项分布规律(A,B,C,D均匀分配;任何一个选项不能连续为三个),进行答案确定。

  三、熟知新题型重点考查题型,明确快速解题

  英语一今年必考段落排序题和完型填句(段)题,两种题型形式看似不同,解题思路实则相同。这两种题型全部做对可能性较低,但是获取8分是考生们的目标。拿分策略如下:

  各位同学要认真记忆核心论证素材和句子,以便考试中遇到相似情境,进行套用,尽量减少现场原创。以下提供考前需要背诵的重要素材,同学们的学习方法是:以最快速度记忆,然后默写。这些材料在考试中,可以作为有效论证或原因分析的材料,帮助我们快速写好第二段或第三段。

  重点主题1:个人品质

  主要论述某种品质的重要作用,比如独立能力(the ability of independence)适应环境(adaptation to the environment)、坚持(persistence)、创新(creativity/innovation)、勇气/胆识(courage)等。这类主题既可单独考,也可以融合到其他主题中做论据。(提示:英一和英二都要重视)

  To begin with, "主题词" should always play a significant role in our life and work. All of us are eager to be successful in whatever we do. In fact, only those who have the ability of主题词 in doing enough to encounter challenges of all sorts are most likely to reach the summit of success.

  Furthermore, the 主题词 also spirits the young people up, keeps them mentally vigorous and endows them the power of solving any problems in the way to the success. According to a report released recently by Chinese Institute for Educational Research, most successful entrepreneurs such as Ma Yun ascribe their achievement to some important traits, with 主题词 being one of them.(提示:观点1主题的重要性;观点2编一个统计调查)

  According to Theory of Need put forward by the famous modern psychologist Maslow, everyone has the need for love/self-esteem/self-actualization/success. It is out of dispute that主题词as a key factor to our success both in study and work contributes greatly to this …. (提示:马斯洛需求理论可以通用在品质类的任何具体话题中。)

  重点主题2:可持续发展(sustainable development)(节约、资源保护、低碳生活)(提示:英语一/二都可用)

  以下以节约为例给出论证素材,同类话题可以直接改写套用

  Thrift, as is known to all, is considered one of the merits that we should have. It is this merit that helps to reduce the amount of time/money/space consumed in our daily life. A community with clear awareness of saving water/… is always praised as a highly civilized society and a good model for others to learn from. (提示:节约的意义)

  Waste, as is known to all, is one of the poor habits we should not have. It is this habit that definitely results in the extravagance of natural resource/limited time/money. A community with vague or even no awareness of thrift is undoubtedly a lowly civilized society and is surely to be regarded as a negative case to learn a lesson from. The waste and extravagance have become increasingly serious in China. We can often encounter a scene where papers, bottles and cans are thrown away after use, food is wasted just because of poor taste, or clothes are discarded simply due to their old fashion. Not only do we squander things and money, but also we lose our sense of conservation. (提示:浪费的害处)

  核心表达:节约:save, cherish, thrift(n.), conservation(n.); 浪费:waste, squander, extravagance(n.);emission of carbon碳排放;low carbon life低碳生活,carbon dioxide 二氧化碳,green economy 绿色经济,the amount of carbon emission 碳排放量,water shortage 水资源短缺,green waste pick-ups 绿色垃圾回收

  重点主题3:新通讯科技 VS. 传统媒介

  这类话题考查角度包括信息安全、网络谣言、疏远人际关系等社会热点;也可以与经济、教育相关,如互联网教育、网络消费等

  角度1:(提示:分析信息需要甄别的原因;迁移到学习上,先筛选知识,再进行学习)

  The advanced network technology has provided people with such convenient communication tools as BBS, Micro blogs, QQ, and e-mail, which will promote the spread/diffusion of false information or even rumors. So, each day a large number of messages through different means of information are sent. Some of them are real and valuable, and some of them false and misleading. Judged from this respect, to build up the ability of filter out the useful information is the key factor to enhance the effective process of information.

  Overwhelmed by the ever-increasing knowledge, we cannot help considering how to choose the knowledge we really need and absorb it in as effective a manner as possible. The answer is, surely, to establish and specify the standards of the knowledge we seek for, search out the categories of information according to the standards, and make the judgment which categories are the needy ones before we go to details.

  角度2:理性对待通讯设备

  First of all, although cell phones really provide us with entertainment, relaxation and so on, excessive reliance on the cell phones weakens relationships by reducing and sometimes eliminating normal opportunities for talking, for communicating, which is so important in maintaining the healthy relationship between friends, family and so on. Thus, it will make people mentally farther and farther away from each other.

  Next, undeniably, the cell phone gives us rich information/great convenience/instant communication/…, however, we can easily find the more we depend on …, the less able we become to acquire more information/greater convenience/deep communication independently. The excessive use of "cell phone" distorts the sense of time, and renders other experiences vague and curiously unreal.

  核心表达:

  immense information信息海洋,a great amount knowledge大量知识,rumor谣言,filter out筛选,make the judgment判断;cell phone手机,micro blog微博,micro message微信,a crazy cell phone user手机控(提示:核心表达)

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