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2016考研英语备考之状语从句详解

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2015-03-25 13:41:00

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  2016考研英语备考之状语从句详解

  状语从句从字面上来看,是一个句子做状语成分。句子用作状语时,是起副词作用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语或整个句子。根据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和比较等从句。从形式上来看,状语从句一般由从属连词引导,或者也可以由词组引导。从位置上来看,从句位于句首或句中时通常用逗号与主句隔开,位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。

  1、when/while/as引导

  When引导时间状语从句意思是“当.。。时候”,既可以跟延续性动词也可以跟瞬间动词,也就是说既可以指时间段也可以指时间点,另外when引导的从句里的动作既可以和主句动作同时发生也可以发生在主句之前或之后。如果when引导的时间状语从句主语与主句主语相同,且从句谓语是be动词,则从句中的主语和be动词均可以省略,例如句子:When (you are) rich, do not forget to help others。另外,当从句与主句主语相同时,从句可以用“when+分词”代替,例如句子:When asked the question, I was confused. When coming into the room, I found him lying there asleep。

  While引导时间状语从句时意思也是“当.。。时候”,强调主句动作与从句动作同时进行,且从句动词得是延续性动词而非瞬间动词,如:While we were dancing, it was raining suddenly。

  As引导时间状语从句意思为“一边.。。一边”,侧重表示两个动作同时发生;或者一种动作伴随另一种动作的变化而变化,The sad mother sat on the roadside, crying as she was shouting。(一边.。。一边) As time went on, the memories got vague。(随着)

  综上所述,when、while、as均可以引导时间状语从句,但三者的用法还是有所区别,when既可以跟延续性动词也可以跟瞬间动词,而while和as都只能跟延续性动词;when引导的从句既可以发生在主句之前、之后也可以同时发生,而while、as从句的动作与主句动作强调同时发生。语法的掌握除了理解理论,还需要在句子中掌握。希望大家从句子中深刻认识状语从句。

  2、before/after引导

  这两个连词用法比较简单,before引导的从句发生在主句之前,after引导的从句发生在主句之后。来看两个例子:Come to see me before you go to America。在你去美国之前先来看看我。After I arrived in Beijing,I went to the Great Wall first。我到达北京后,我首先去了长城。

  3、till/until引导

  二者在一般情况下可以互换,但till不能放在句首,until可以位于句首。如果主句中的谓语动词是瞬间动词,必须用否定形式;如果主句中的谓语动词是延续性动词,肯定形式、否定形式均可。例如:I did not go to bed until my father came back. I worked until my father came back。

  4、since引导

  Since引导时间状语从句表示“自从.。。以来”。当主句用现在完成时态,从句用一般过去时。They have been friends since they were kids. I have been worked in this company since we met last time。

  5、as soon as/hardly when/no sooner than引导

  这些连词表示“一.。。就”,如:As soon as I reach home, I will call you back。当hardly, scarcely, rarely和no sooner位于句首时,主句要用倒装语序。He had no sooner arrived home than he was asked to begin another journey。他刚到家,就被告知开始另一段新的旅程。

  6、by the time引导

  一般,当从句为一般过去时,主句用过去完成时;当从句为一般现在时,主句为将来完成时。By the time you arrived there, I had finished this work.By the time you come here tomorrow, I will have finished this work。

  7、each time/every time引导

  You grow younger each time I see you。每次见你,你都变年轻了。

  8、as long as/so long as引导

  I will call you as long as I get home。只要我一到家,我就给你打电话。

  语法的掌握除了理解理论,还需要在句子中掌握。时间状语从句的连词相对很多,对于这些词的掌握主要从时态上进行掌握。在今后进行长难句解析时要注意时间状语从句的用法,活学活用,真题句子无非就是由这些从句堆砌起来的,因此基础要夯实是关键。希望大家对时间状语从句有个深刻的认识。

  在考研基础夯实阶段,考研英语备考需要做的是熟悉语法,只有语法有了一定基础,后期对长难句解析才会不困难,今天老师就2016考研英语语法基础中的状语从句接着给大家进行讲解,着重从几个句子中让大家对时间状语从句有个更深刻的认识。

  句子一:It is all deliciously ironic when you consider that Shakespeare, who earns their living, was himself an actor(with a beard) and did his share of noise-making。句子主干It is ironic+时间状语从句;deliciously副词修饰形容词ironic,deliciously本意是“美味地”,“美味地讽刺”搭配不当,意思没有表达出来,因此要把“美味地”换成别的词,如果副词意思无法准确表达出来,那就可以理解成程度副词“very”,大大地讽刺。时间状语从句为when you consider that...;Shakespeare was himself an actor(with a beard) and did his share of noise-making为consider的宾语从句,这个句子是个部分强调句,正常语序为Shakespeare was an actor(with a beard) and did his share of noise-making;who earns their living定语从句修饰Shakespeare,在这个定语从句中,who作为引导词并且充当句子中的主语成分,从句中谓语是earns,宾语是their living。参考翻译:想想给他们带来生计的莎士比亚本人就是个演员(留着胡子),他也是制造这些噪音的一部分,这样一来你就会觉得一切带有大大地讽刺意味。

  句子二:Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War II had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents”。句子主干是Mitsuo Setoyama raised eyebrows when+时间状语从句;who was then education minister为定语从句修饰Mitsuo Setoyama,在这个定语从句中,who作为引导词并且充当句子中的主语成分,从句中系动词是was,表语是education minister;在时间状语从句中,句子主干是he argued that liberal reforms had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents”;introduced by the American occupation authorities非谓语动词作定语修饰liberal reforms;after World War II是介词短语作时间状语。参考翻译:去年,时任教育部长的濑户光夫争辩说“二战”后由美国占领当局引入的自由主义改革削弱了日本民族“尊敬父母的道德品质”,引起舆论一片哗然。

  状语从句从字面上来看,是一个句子做状语成分。句子用作状语时,是起副词作用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语或整个句子。希望大家结合上边的句子更深入理解时间状语从句。

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