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2016考研(普硕版)暑前作业:英语第五周

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2015-06-30 16:27:52

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  2016考研(普硕版)暑前作业:英语第五周

  第五周 句子成分与非谓语动词

  句子成分

  第一节 主干成分

  一、主系表

  1、系动词

  The loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost.

  企业收益的损失超出了成本的降低

  This view seems “logical.” She looked tired.

  Costs have rocketed and ticket prices have stayed low.

  Building a big, powerful dam has become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert themselves. (现在分词做后置定语,strive to do= try to do 固定搭配 省略了who are)(1998-TEXT1)修建高大雄伟的大坝已成为那些力争得到自我肯定的国家和人民的伟大成就的象征。

  The rumor proved false. His plan turned out a success.

  2、表语

  The long, scenic route was our preference.

  My job as a police officer is to impose accountability on people who refuseto impose it on themselves. 作为一名警察,我的工作就是把责任感强行加到那些拒绝承担责任的人身上。(as a police officer状语 is 后面整个都是表语,accountability责任感做to impose的宾语)

  Her job is washing, cleaning and taking care of the children.

  The American dream is that any child can make it.

  Personality is to a large extent inherent.性格在很大程度上是与生俱来的。(to a large extent插入语 inherent)

  Traveling is interesting but tiring.

  Yuanquan is married.

  David is in the house. Jolin is in the house.

  The masterminds of the attacks are still at large. 攻击的主谋仍逍遥法外。(at large未被捕的)

  二、主谓★★(包括主谓,主谓宾,主谓双宾,主谓宾语宾补)

  These leaders are living proof that prevention works and that we can manage the health problems that come naturally with age. 这些领导人就是活生生的证据,证明对疾病的防治是有意义的,证明我们能够对付年龄带来的健康问题。(work不及物动词)

  Now we live in a world of noise and violence and speed. 现在,我们生活在一个充斥着喧器、暴力和快节奏的世界之中。

  Some schools, like the University of Wisconsin, have declined to assist the RIAA, explaining that to identify the IP users and forward the letters to them would put the university in an uncomfortable and inappropriate alliance with the RIAA.一些学校,如威斯康星大学就拒绝协助美国唱片产业协会,该校解释说“找到这些IP用户并把信件转交给他们,这会使学校与美国唱片产业协会结成不合适的联盟,”(schools主语,逗号之间插入语,have declined谓语,to assist the RIAA不定式做宾语,explaining做状语后连接that引导的宾从:to identify the IP users and (to)forward the letters to them的主语,would put 做宾从谓语 the university做宾从宾语,后面是宾从状语;前面宾从主语中,the IP users 和letter 和them分别作to identify和forward的宾语)

  Washington granted his slaves their freedom.

  Such advances offer the aging population a quality of life that was unimaginable when I entered medicine 50 years ago.这些进步给老年人口带来的高质量生活在50年前我刚刚进入医疗行业时是不可想象的。(that was unimaginable定从修饰life)

  Over the past century, people have made illegal all kinds of unfairness and discrimination.

  在过去的一个世纪里各种各样的不公和歧视已经被人们视为非法。(直宾间宾换位置,避免头重脚轻。)

  Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan’s and Dr. de Waal’s study.(for在这里既可以理解为引导状语表“对于”,也可以是介短做后置定语,修饰candidates)

  The NT Rights of the Terminally Ill law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications.

  要充分理解这一法案的深刻意义可能需要一段时间。澳北州晚期病人权利法使得无论是内科医生还是普通市民都力图从道义和实际意义两方面来考虑这一问题。(left sb.adj.使某人处于什么状态,trying 后是宾补)

  I had my watch mended.

  (我把我的表让别人修了;如果是过去分词做宾补,一般翻译成让别人做某事)

  We went to her house but found her out.

  三、there be(另一种句型)

  There is a restaurant around the corner. There are two people outside.

  四、主语/宾语

  一、词作主语/宾语

  With the building of good, fast motorways long distances can be covered rapidly and pleasantly.(long distances 是主语)由于修建了快捷的高速公路,我们能够迅速而愉快地到达遥远的地方。

  That matters because theory suggests that the maximum sustainable yield comes when the biomass of a target species is about 50% of its original levels.

  这一点很重要,因为理论表明,当一种目标鱼种的生物量大致降到最初水平的50%时,渔场才能获得最大的持续捕鱼量。(matters是谓语动词)

  An important function of the World Health Organization is to improve the health and living conditions for the sick and the poor of world.

  二、短语作主语/宾语

  Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true when it comes to classroom tests. 做作业肯定是提高成绩的办法,对随堂考试尤其是这样。

  To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. 被提升或降职不仅是薪水问题,更是一个人的自尊问题。

  More and more people can afford to buy and use cars.

  三、从句作主语/宾语

  When they will come hasn't been made public.

  She asked him which platform the train leaved from.

  It is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives.

  Refrigerators have made it possible to store food for long periods

  第二节修饰成分

  一、定语

  1、 词

  Tom is a handsome boy.

  He wanted to get someone reliable.

  Anyone intelligent can do it.

  Time alone will showwho is right.

  在通常情况下,如果没有相应的派生形容词,原则上可直接用名词作定语,或与之构成合成词。

  hair style发式 tooth ache牙疼 service counter服务台

  The father was disappointed at the disappointing news that his son failed the exam.

  2、短语

  In America the selection of jurors acceptable to both the prosecution and the defence sometimes takes longer than the trial itself.(acceptable在这里为形容词短语作后置定语)

  In such a changing, complex society formerly simple solutions to informational needsbecome complicated.在今天这个变化而多元的社会,对信息的需求由从前的简单变得复杂。(become是谓语动词,need是名词)

  The ability to solve any problem or even to recognize a problem depends on memory.

  The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail.

  Most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. 大多数物质的过量使用都会产生负面影响,如中毒或严重的知觉错乱。

  3、从句

  People have failed to detect the massive changes which have happened in the ocean.

  二、 状 语

  英语中,修饰动词、形容词、副词等的成分叫状语(adverbial)。状语说明地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、方向、程度、方式和伴随状况等。

  1、词作状语

  A sensible person can readily recognize the difference between appropriate and inappropriate behavior.

  Quite obviously, immediate action is needed to extricate 80 million Chinese people from the grips of poverty.

  2、短语作状语

  Without the ability to think critically, they cannot fully participate in our democracy.

  Many European schools introduce the concept of professional training early on in order to make sure children are properly equipped for the professions they want to join. 欧洲的许多学校很早就引进职业培训的概念,以确保孩子们具备欲从事的职业所需的技能。

  We went early (so as) to get good seats.

  Taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effect.根据说明书服药,该药没有副作用。

  现在分词(主动)

  过去分词(被动)

  形容词短语

  介词短语

  动词不定式

  3、独立主格结构(唯一需要:看懂就行)

  a. 逻辑主语和主句主语不一致

  b. 形式:with/without (可要可不要)+名词/代词(主格)+

  c. 可放句首、句中或句末,作状语

  She sat there thinking, (with) her eyes looking straight upward.

  (With) lots of work to do, I don’t know if I can go out with you.

  With the risks obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now.

  非谓语动词

  一、不定式

  一般式 to do 进行式 to be doing 完成式 to have done

  一般式被动 to be done 进行式被动to be being done 完成式被动 to have been done

  She was the only one to look after the child.

  This constant need to prove that one is as good as one’s competitor creates constant anxiety and stress.一个人需要频繁地去证实他不比其他竞争差或比他更好,这中情况下产生了频繁的焦虑和压力。(该句谓语动词是create)

  It is human nature to shift between self-doubt and blind pride. blind date骄傲自大

  Its intention had been to help farmers under severe financial pressure. under介短做后置定语修饰farmers

  The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs.

  Legislation would make it a crime for private funding to be used for human cloning. 立法把私人资金用于克隆人的行为视为犯罪。

  He instructed me to come to work earlier.(me宾语,to come to work earlier宾补)

  Ms Thomas and her team chose to study racially mixed juries to see whether a defendant's race influenced deliberations.(to see做目的状语 T女士和她的团队选择从种族的角度来研究混合型陪审团,目的是为了了解被告的种族是否影响了审判意见)

  二、分词

  一般式 doing 一般式被动 being done

  完成式having done 完成式被动 having been done

  This “added-worker effect” could support the safety net offered by unemployment insurance or disability insurance to help families weather bad times.这种“附加工人效应”可以支持失业保险或残疾保险所提供的保障制度,以帮助家庭渡过困难时期。

  Learning could not occur without the function popularly named memory.如果没有大家称之为记忆的功能,学习便不能发生。(named做后置定语)

  The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail.

  For much of the past year, President Bush campaigned to move Social Security to a saving-account model,(with)retirees trading much or all of their guaranteed payments for payments depending on investment returns.去年的大部分时间里,布什总统一直致力于将社会保险体制转变成个人储蓄存款账户模式,要求退休人员将其大多数或全部有保障的收入转换为依靠回报率的投资。

  三、动名词

  Encouraging kids to reject the life of the mind leaves them vulnerable to exploitation and control.鼓励孩子们放弃精神生活,会使他们受到盘剥和控制

  He denies attempting murdering his wife.

  Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners.

  The best xercise in winter is sleeping.

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