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2016考研(普硕版)暑前作业:英语第三周

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2015-06-30 16:11:30

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  2016考研(普硕版)暑前作业:英语第三周

  第三周文化教育类词汇

  educational background 教育背景 eucational history 学历

  curriculum 全部课程 major 主修

  educational highlights 课程重点部分 minor 副修

  specialized courses 专门课程 social practice 社会实践

  part-time jobs 业余工作 scholarship 奖学金

  recreational activities 娱乐活动 academic activities 学术活动

  extracurricular activities 课外活动 excellent leader 优秀干部

  student union 学生会 off-job training 脱产培训

  in-job training 在职培训 faculty 全体教员

  president 校长dean 院长

  department chairman 系主任 associate professor 副教授

  lecturer 讲师 teaching assistant 助教

  research fellow 研究员 supervisor (论文) 导师

  talent fair 人才招聘会 post doctorate 博士后

  undergraduate 本科(在读)生 senior 大四生

  junior 大三生 sophomore 大二生

  freshman 大一生 guest student 旁听生(英)

  auditor 旁听生(美) government-supported student 公费生

  day-student 走读生 intern 实习生

  boarder 寄宿生 graduate-equivalency certificate 同等学历文凭

  adult-literacy program 成人读写能力课程GPA 平均成绩

  higher education 高等教育 out-of-class work 课外作业

  admission standard 入学标准 expand enrollment 扩大招生

  intellectual property 知识产权 duck-stuffing 填鸭式

  native tongue 母语 bilingualism 双语

  endangered languages 濒危语种 linguistic and cultural diversity语言及文化多样性

  阅读—文化教育类文章

  1995 Text 4

  Personality is to a large extent inherent — A-type parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents; it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.

  One place where children soak up A-characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the “win at all costs” moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner, dropped dead seconds after saying: “Rejoice, we conquer!”

  By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.

  Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B’s. The world needs types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child’s personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.

  If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from A-type stock. B’s are important and should be encouraged.

  63. According to the passage, A-type individuals are usually ________.

  [A] impatient[B] considerate

  [C] aggressive[D] agreeable

  64. The author is strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools because ________.

  [A] the pressure is too great on the students

  [B] some students are bound to fail

  [C] failure rates are too high

  [D] the results of exanimations are doubtful

  65. The selection of medical professionalsarecurrently based on ________.

  [A] candidates’ sensitivity

  [B] academic achievements

  [C] competitive spirit

  [D] surer values

  66. From the passage we can draw the conclusion that ________.

  [A] the personality of a child is well established at birth

  [B] family influence dominates the shaping of one’s characteristics

  [C] the development of one’s personality is due to multiple factors

  [D] B-type characteristics can find no place in competitive society

  1996 Text 1

  Tight-lipped elders used to say, "It's not what you want in this world, but what you get.

  Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.

  You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.

  Likewise, if you want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.

  This account of yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education, experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience and other qualifications will pay him to employ you andyour "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

  When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information about your could-be job. Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgment. Spend a certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you wish for, and keep in mind: Securing a job is your job now.

  51. What do the elders mean when they say, "It's not what you want in this world, but what you get. "?

  [A] You'll certainly get what you want.

  [B] It's no use dreaming.

  [C] You should be dissatisfied with what you have.

  [D] It's essential to set a goal for yourself.

  52. A blueprint made before inviting a friend to dinner is used in this passage as__.

  [A] an illustration of how to write an application for a job

  [B] an indication of how to secure a good job

  [C] a guideline for job description

  [D] a principle for job evaluation

  53. According to the passage, one must write an account of himself before starting to find a job because __.

  [A] that is the first step to please the employer

  [B] that is the requirement of the employer

  [C] it enables him to know when to sell his services

  [D] it forces him to become clearly aware of himself

  54. When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something__.

  [A] definite to offer

  [B] imaginary to provide

  [C] practical to supply

  [D] desirable to present

  1997 Text 2

  A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.

  For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence. Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.

  The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn't take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.

  Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. "I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner — amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.

  As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to "translate" cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word "friend", the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitor's language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many Americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.

  55. In the eyes of visitors from the outside world, ________.

  [A] rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US[B] small-minded officials deserve a serious comment

  [C] Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors[D] most Americans are ready to offer help

  56. It could be inferred from the last paragraph that ________.

  [A] culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship

  [B] courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated

  [C] various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends

  [D] social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions

  57. Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers ________.

  [A] to improve their hard life[B] in view of their long-distance travel

  [C] to add some flavor to their own daily life[D] out of a charitable impulse

  58. The tradition of hospitality to strangers ________.

  [A] tends to be superficial and artificial [B] is generally well kept up in the United States

  [C] is always understood properly[D] has something to do with the busy tourist trails

  1997 Text 4

  No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of nation. "Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?" Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. "You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?"At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul-searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. It's a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line.

  At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the company's mountainous debt, which will increase to $17.3 billion after two new cable deals close. He has promised to sell off some of the property and restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently.

  The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has consistently defended the company's rap music on the grounds of expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice-T's violent rap song Cop Killer, Levin described rap as a lawful expression of street culture, which deserves an outlet. "The test of any democratic society," he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, "lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. We won't retreat in the face of any threats."

  Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were signs that the chairman was backing off his hard-line stand, at least to some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month's stockholders’ meeting, Levin asserted that "music is not the cause of society's ills" and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the "balanced struggle" between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music.

  The 15-member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown their concerns in this matter. "Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited," says Luce. "I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated with the company have only recently come to realize this."

  63. Senator Robert Dole criticized Time Warner for ________.

  [A] its raising of the corporate stock price[B] its self-examination of soul

  [C] its neglect of social responsibility[D] its emphasis on creative freedom

  64. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

  [A] Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner.[B] Gerald Levin is liable to compromise.

  [C] Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate.[D] Steve Ross is no longer alive.

  65. In face of the recent attacks on the company, the chairman ________.

  [A] stuck to a strong stand to defend freedom of expression

  [B] softened his tone and adopted some new policy

  [C] changed his attitude and yielded to objection

  [D] received more support from the 15-member board

  66. The best title for this passage could be ________.

  [A] A Company under Fire [B] A Debate on Moral Decline

  [C] A Lawful Outlet of Street Culture [D] A Form of Creative Freedom

  第三周 1.CBBC 2.BADA 3.DACB 4.CDBA

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