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2016考研英语:语法重难点精解--倒装句

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2015-07-28 13:15:57

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  倒装句是历年考研英语必考的知识,占据了大约10分左右的分值。在分分必争的考研考试中,我们要牢记这个难点知识。在这里呢,我们跨考英语教师为同学们带来了,2016考研英语:语法重难点精解--倒装句知识点讲解。

  一、全部倒装

  (一)there be句型

  有时一些表示存在意义的不及物动词也可用于该句型,如:stand, lie, exist, live, remain, appear, come, happen, occur, rise等。

  例句:Generally, there was a belief that the new nations should be sovereign and independent states, large enough to be economically viable and integrated by a common set of laws. (选自2007年Use of English)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中a belief与that the new nations should be sovereign and independent states互为同位语关系,形容词短语large enough to be...作定语修饰states。

  译文:他们普遍认为新生的国家是拥有主权和完全独立的国家,大到经济上可运行良好,并由一套共同法律让各个新的独立国家联合起来。

  (二)表示方向、地点的状语等词置于句首

  here, there, up, down, away, in, out, off等位于句首时,往往主谓倒装。

  例句: Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors.

  (选自2002年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,which I heard at a nurses convention和which works well共同修饰story。

  译文: 举个例子,在一次护士大会上,我听到了一个效果很理想的幽默故事,因为听众都对医生持有相同的看法。

  (三)作表语的形容词或分词置于句首

  例句: Lying unconsciously under the tree was an old man aged 75.

  分析: 该句是简单句,aged 75修饰an old man,作后置定语。

  译文: 一位75岁高龄的老人躺在树下,已经不省人事。

  二、部分倒装

  (一)否定词或具有(半)否定意义的词或词组置于句首作状语

  如:never, scarcely, hardly, rarely, seldom, little, no sooner...than, hardly...when,scarcely...when (before), not only, in no case (in no way, at no time, on no account, by no means,under no circumstances,in no respects)(决不,在任何情况下都不), no longer/no more (不再)。

  例句: Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe. (2005年第46题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,and前是一复合句,定语从句by which...修饰the means,后一分句中never置于句首引起倒装。

  译文: 电视是制造和表达这些情绪的方式之一,在加强不同民族和国家之间的联系方面,电视也许还从来没有像在欧洲事务中那样起过如此大的作用。

  (二)only+副词/介词短语/状语从句(句首状语由only修饰)

  例句: Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their own. (选自2004年Part B)

  分析:该句是复合句,that were very different from their own是修饰languages的定语从句。

  译文: 直到最近,语言学家才开始认真研究与他们自己所掌握的完全不同的语言。

  例句: Only gradually was the byproduct of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.

  (2009年第47题)

  分析: 该句是由and连接的两个并列简单句,两个分句都是以only开头的倒装句,在前一分句中,主干部分是the byproduct of the institution was noted, only gradually修饰noted;在后一分句中,主干是this effect was considered..., 其中only more gradually修饰considered, as a directive factor作主语this effect的补足语,介词短语in the conduct of the institution作directive factor的后置定语。

  译文: 人们只是逐渐地认识到制度这一副产品,而在运行这种制度的过程中,认识到这种效果具有指导性作用的时间则更加缓慢。

  (三)条件从句中省略if

  在虚拟语气中,条件从句if省略时,倒装到主语前的是助动词should,had和系动词were。

  例句: Were the Times Co. to purchase another major media company, there is no doubt that it could dramatically transform a family run enterprise that still gets 90% of its revenues from newspapers. (1999年第13题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,were the Times Co. to purchase是一省略if的倒装句,that it could dramatically...enterprise是doubt的同位语,而that still gets 90% of its revenues from newspapers是修饰enterprise的定语从句。

  译文: 如果时代公司要收购另一家主流媒体公司的话,那仍旧靠报纸获得90%收入的家族式企业的模式肯定会遭到它大刀阔斧的改革。

  例句: Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is. (1998年第10题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,had it not been...是一个省略if的倒装从句,整个句子表示混合式虚拟语气,主句表示与现在相反假设,从句表示与过去相反假设。

  译文: 要不是公众及时投资,我们公司不会像现在这么繁荣。

  (四)其他部分倒装情况

  表示前面陈述的情况适合于后者,前面是肯定句,后面用so引导;前面是否定句,后面用neither或nor引导,省略倒装句中的助动词在时态和语态形式上与前面句子保持一致。。

  例句: Americans no longer expect public figures, whether in speech or in writing, to command the English with skill and gift. Nor do they aspire to such command themselves. (选自2005年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是由nor引导的并列句。whether in speech or in writing的完整形式是whether they are in speech or in writing,表示让步;介词短语with skill and gift在句中作状语修饰动词command。

  译文: 美国人不再期望公众人物在演讲或写作时可以娴熟地运用技巧和文采来掌握英语,而人们本身也不这样要求自己。

  (五)so...that结构

  so...that结构中,"so+状语"位于句首表强调时,使用倒装。

  例句: So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

  (2001年第6题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that leaders at summer computer camps...是一结果状语从句,so involved with...置于句首引起倒装。

  译文: 孩子们对电脑如此着迷,以至于电脑夏令营的组织者们不得不强迫他们停下来做一些体育运动和游戏。

  (六)not until置于句首

  not until置于句首时,连词until引导的从句主谓不倒装,但主句的主谓结构必须倒装。

  例句: Not until you return those books to the library immediately will you have to pay a fine.

  分析: 该句是复合句。由于not until置于句首,主句will you have to pay a fine是一倒装句。

  译文: 只有及时还书给图书馆,你才不会受罚。

  (七)as, though, no matter how, however引导的让步状语从句

  as, though引导的倒装句型为:名词(前不加a或an)/形容词/副词+as+主语+谓语,该结构可用though引导的让步状语从句来替换,译为"虽然…但是"或"尽管…但是"。

  例句:Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her in thoroughness, whatever the job.

  分析:该句是复合句,其中从句much as I have traveled是一倒装句,短语"equal sb. in sth."意为"在某方面与他人旗鼓相当"

  译文:虽然我常旅行,但我从未见过任何人于任何工作能像她那样一丝不苟。

  例句:Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary article physics, many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true. (1998年第75题)

  分析:该句是复合句,odd though it sounds是一倒装句,其中it指代cosmic inflation,介词短语in elementary article physics修饰ideas,that it is true在句中作convinced的宾语,另一介词短语for the better part of a decade作状语表示时间。

  译文:宇宙膨胀说虽然听似奇特,但它还是基本粒子物理学中一些公认的理论在科学上看来可信的推论。许多天体物理学家十年来一直认为这一论说是正确的。

  (八)be+主语+其他(若其他是单数名词作宾语,则名词前不接不定冠词a/an)

  这是一开放式条件状语从句,属于特殊倒装结构,表示泛指。该结构可用whether...or结构来替换,同时单数名词前的不定冠词保持不变,可译为"不管/不论……"。

  例句:Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on. (2001年第10题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,be they...是一倒装句,相当于whether they are...。

  译文: 我们所使用的教堂一词,指的是所有的宗教机构,不管它们是基督教、伊斯兰教、佛教或犹太教等。

  2016考研英语:语法重难点精解--倒装句知识点讲解,在上面文章中我已经为同学们带来了分析整理。希望你好好记忆我们的整理。

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