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英语翻译答题技巧之归化翻译法

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2014-11-18 18:01:49

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由于文化上的差异,英译汉时有时直译原文就会使译入语读者感到费解,甚至误解。这时,就有必要借用汉语中意义相同或相近、且具有自己鲜明文化色彩的表达法对原文加以归化。归化翻译法常用于处理某些英语成语、典故、形象词语等一类文化色彩较浓的表达方式。恰倒好处地归化可以使译文地道简洁、生动活泼,便于译入语读者理解和接受。例如:

  as timid as a hare 胆小如鼠

  (在西方文化中,兔子是胆小的象征,而在我国,兔子却象征着机警敏捷。人们常说:“静若处子,动若脱兔。”鼠在我国才是胆小的象征,所以翻译时直接加以归化。)

  at a stone's throw一箭之遥

  wet like a drown rat 湿如落汤鸡

  as stupid as a goose 蠢得像猪

  as stubborn as a mule 犟得像牛

  seek a hare in a hen's nest 缘木求鱼

  as dumb as an oyster 守口如瓶

  lead a dog's life 过着牛马一样的生活

  cry up wine and sell vinegar 挂羊头,卖狗肉

  put back the clock 开倒车

  talk horse 吹牛

  kill the goose that lays the golden eggs 杀鸡取卵

  drink like a fish 牛饮

  (1) Once the wife of a parson, always the wife of a parson.

  嫁鸡随鸡,嫁狗随狗。

  (2)One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy.

  一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃。

  (3) I was limp as a dish rag. My back felt as through it had been beaten with wires.

  我软得像一团棉花,脊背疼痛得好像被钢丝抽打过一样。

  (原文中limp as a dish rag,如直译为“像洗碟布一样柔软”,既不地道,又让人产生一种较恶心的感觉,不如用汉语中常说的“软得像一团棉花”加以归化。)

  (4) Everybody said how well the new Secretary was doing, but old Mr. Carr said shortly,“Yes. New brooms sweep clean.”

  人人都说新任秘书干得好,但卡尔老先生却简慢地说:“新官上任三把火。”

  (原文new brooms sweep clean的字面意思是“新扫把扫得干净”,比喻“新任职的人干得好”,和汉语中的“新官上任三把火”异曲同工,貌离神合。)

  (5) Among the blind the one-eyed man is King.

  山中无老虎,猴子称霸王。

  (6) Last night I heard him driving his pig to market.

  昨夜我听到他鼾声如雷。

  (7) Who would have thought of Mr.Mottram doing so well? And so many of his friends,too, that used to stay here? We were entertaining angels unawares.

  谁知道摩特兰先生干得那么出色?还有他那许多朋友,原来都住在这儿的,谁知道呀?我们真是有眼无珠。

  (8) It was, as Bill afterwards expressed it, “during a moment of temporary mental apparition”, but we didn't find that out till later.

  恰如后来比尔说的那样,那阵子简直是“一时鬼迷心窍”.不过,我们直到后来才明白了这个意思。

  (apparition在原文中是鬼魂或幽灵出现的意思。mental apparition直译是“心中有鬼”,这就很容易给人造成误解,因此需要多少将原形象适当地转换一下。)

  (9) They will be ice-skating in hell the day, when I vote the aid for them.

  要我投票赞成给他们援助,除非太阳从西边出来。

  (ice-skating in hell如译成“在地狱里滑冰”就很难为中国读者所理解和接受。)

  (10) “Until her husband won the pools, she was the most commonplace, dowdy, illiterate creature imaginable,but now that she dresses herself up like a society queen and nearly always remembers to sound her aitches, people are already beginning to forget what she was like before.

  “Fine feathers make fine birds.”

  “过去没有比她更平平常常、无知无识而又邋邋遢遢的了,自从她男人赢得全部赌注以后,她打扮得象个社交皇后,总是记住发H的音,人们开始忘记她以前是什么样子了。”

  “人靠衣裳马靠鞍嘛。”

  (11) I'd much rather see her once or twice and not do anything about it——what could I do about it anyway? She's a bit out of my class, don't you think? If I did try to do anything, I'd only get sent off with a flea in my ear.

  我宁愿见她一两面就算了──我还能干什么呢?你没看到她和我不怎么相称吗?我要干点什么,也只会碰一鼻子灰。

  (原文a flea in one's ear的字面意思是“耳朵上有个跳蚤”,用来比喻“讥讽的话,刺耳的话”send sb. off with a flea in one's ear意思是“用讥讽的话气走某人”,与汉语“碰一鼻子灰”意思相近,但如译为“用讥讽话气走某人”,则过于平淡,远不如“碰一鼻子灰”生动、俏皮。)

  (12) He was so fond of talking that his comrades nicknamed him “magpie” .

  他如此唠叨,同伴们给他起了个 “麻雀” 的外号。

  (英语中 “喜鹊” 喻义 “唠叨、饶舌” ,但在汉语中 “喜鹊” 却象征着 “喜事、吉祥” ,而 “麻雀” 表示 “唠叨、饶舌” ,所以用归化法。)

  (13) There's a people's court waiting for him. His God-damned head is going to be separated from his God-damned neck.

  人民法庭正等着他。狗头就要和狗脖子分家呢。

  (原文God-damned意为“ 该死的” ,但如译成“该死的头” 、”该死的脖子” 远不如“狗头” 、“狗脖子” 痛快。)

  (14) I'm a diplomat, a linguist, altogether a bespectacled cream puff.

  我是个外交官,一个语言学家,总而言之,是个戴眼镜的银样邋枪头。

  (原文cream puff的字面意思是“奶油松饼“,比喻“中看不中用的人”,和汉语中的“银样邋枪头”意思相近。但如直译成“奶油松饼”,则不易为汉语读者所接受。归化后,既能保存原意,又能为汉语读者所接受。)

  采用归化时,要避免走极端,不要用汉语民族文化色彩太浓的词(如:历史人物、地理名词等)来归化英语习语,否则译文会让人感觉不伦不类。

  (1) Beauty lies in lover's eyes.

  情人眼里出美人。

  (此处就不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 “情人眼里出西施“.译者怎能把中国古代美女西施搬到西方作品中去呢?)

  (2) Many heads are better than one.

  一人不及众人计。

  (此处就不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 “三个臭皮匠,顶个诸葛亮”.如把历史人物诸葛亮搬到西方作品中去,总让人感到不伦不类的。)

  (3) Never offer to teach fish to swim.

  不要教鱼儿游泳。

  (此处也不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 “不要班门弄斧” 、 “不要关公面前耍大刀” .)

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