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2015考研英语翻译技巧之定语从句

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2014-12-10 13:22:13

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  定语从句的翻译

  定语从句就是起定语作用的从句。代词主要有which,that,who,where等等。 定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句两大类。

  通常在翻译时,限定性定语从句就是把定语前置;非限定性定语从句通常要独立成句。 定语从句表示原因,结果,转折等等状语关系的意思,翻译时要把这种关系表达出来。 定语从句的译法有三种:前置定语,独立成句,译成状语从句。

  定语从句在翻译时由于信息量复杂,通常都是把定语从句从原句中解放出来,译成一个具有表达能力的独立叙述结构。

  一、定语从句的前置

  一)(1995真题)All informed predictions of future performance are based upon some knowledge of relevant past performance: school grades research productive, sales records, or whatever is appropriate. 72. How well the predictions will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted. Anyone who keeps careful score knows that the information available is always incomplete and that the predictions are always subject to error.

  1、划动词,定主谓,明确各分句。

  2、捋关系,定词义,按意群翻译。

  prediction:预测,推测 validate:证实,证明 how well:多大程度上

  3、按逻辑调整语序(意群内部的语序),写中文表达。

  amount:数量 reliability:可靠性 importance:重要性 appropriateness:合适性,适宜性 appropriate:拨款 v. information used:翻译时要将定语前置

  “名词 of 名词”结构的译法:后面的名词整个作为前面名词的定语。 city of Beijing:北京城,北京市 depend upon: 取决于

  4、重组合,删多余,核对和检查。

  二)(2002真题) It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and these are strongly entrenched. Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty. 64) They are the possessions of the autonomous (self£governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. It also raises questions concerning "values." Who will use a technology and to what ends?

  指代问题:they—Freedom and dignity

  dignity:尊严 possess:拥有,占有 possessions:财富 possessive:支配权,控制权 A man can be destroyed, but he can never be defeated. self-governing:自我管理 autonomous region:自治区 要把“they”指代的内容翻译出来。

  autonomous man:自主人;具有自治能力的人

  essential:extremely important and necessary in order to do something correctly必不可少 hold responsible for:对??负责; credit:信任;信用;声望、名誉;赞扬、赞赏 achievement:成绩、效果

  64)自由和尊严是传统理论所认定的自主人的财富,他们对于那种要求人对他的行为负责并且根据他的成绩给予赞扬的做法来说是必不可少的。

  标准答案:自由和尊严是传统理论定义的,自主人所拥有的,是要求一个人对自己的行为负责任并且因其业绩而给予肯定的必不可少的前提。

  三)(1999真题)Historians, especially those so blinded by their research interests that they have been accused of "tunnel method," frequently fall victim to the "technicist fallacy." Also common in the natural sciences, the technicist fallacy mistakenly identifies the discipline as a whole with certain parts of its technical implementation. 75) It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and internal criticism of sources, and to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques.

  指代:it指代technicist fallacy

  fallacy:谬误、错误 traditional historians:传统的历史学家 view sth. as sth.:把??视为?? external:外部的 internal:内部的 criticism:(中性词)the action of giving you option about sb. or sth.评论、评价 sources:史料 apply to:存在于

  第一意群:这种谬误同样适用于那些把历史仅仅视为是对史料来源的内部外部评论的传统历史学家们。 social science historians:社会科学历史学家

  equate:把?与?相等同 equation:方程式、等式 technique:技术、技巧

  第二意群:这种谬误同样存在于那些把他们的研究活动等同于具体技巧研究的社会科学历史学家们。

  标准答案:这种谬误同样存在于历史传统派和历史社科派。前者认为历史就是史学界内部和外部人士对各种史料来源的评论;后者认为历史的研究是具体方法的研究。

  四)(1996真题)Some, however, are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconceptions of the form scientific theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act to alter the growth pattern of different areas. This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable; but it is a

  frightening trend. 72)This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

  when:当时

  The researchers made great progress in the early 1970s, when they discovered that oncogenes, which are cancer-causing genes, are inactive in normal cells.(见94年考研真题Passage4第3段第2句)

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