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2003年考研英语英译汉真题及答案解析

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2014-12-10 13:23:33

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  2003年英译汉试题

  Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segmentssintosChinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  Human beings in all times and places think about their world and wonder at their place in it. Humans are thoughtful and creative, possessed of insatiable curiosity. 61) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies. Therefore, it is important to study humans in all their richness and diversity in a calm and systematic manner, with the hope that the knowledge resulting from such studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves and with all other life forms on this planet Earth.

  "Anthropology" derives from the Greek words anthropos "human" and logos "the study of." By its very name, anthropology encompasses the study of all humankind.

  Anthropology is one of the social sciences. 62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.

  Social science disciplines include geography, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. Each of these social sciences has a subfield or specialization which lies particularly close to anthropology.

  All the social sciences focus upon the study of humanity. Anthropology is a field-study oriented discipline which makes extensive use of the comparative method in analysis. 63) The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.

  Anthropological analyses rest heavily upon the concept of culture. Sir Edward Tylor's formulation of the concept of culture

  was one of the great intellectual achievements of 19th century science. 64) Tylor defined culture as "... that complex whole which includes belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." This insight, so profound in its simplicity, opened up an entirely new way of perceiving and understanding human life. Implicit within Tyler's definition is the concept that culture is learned, shared, and patterned behavior.

  65) Thus, the anthropological concept of "culture," like the concept of "set" in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.

  61) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.

  第一个考点:in which如何去译 第二个考点:subject?如何去译

  furthermore:表示递进关系,可译成此外、甚至、更进一步来说、并且、不仅仅如此等。不可译成确切地说、不久的将来。 modify:修改,修饰,改变。 定语从句的三种基本翻译思路: 1、前置 2、独立成句 3、翻成状语从句

  句子翻译:此外,人类有能力去改变自身居住的环境。 thus:表示因果的副词,因此。 subject?to:使??服从于??

  subject A to B:使A服从于B(重点记忆) peculiar:奇特的,独特的。 idea:观点,看法,想法,理念

  fancy:幻想,想象,同义词fantasy

  final fantasy:最终幻想、fantasy强调想象的事物。

  句子翻译:因此就使得所有其他的生命形式都服从于她们自己这种奇特的想法和想象。 整句翻译:此外,人类有能力改变自身居住的环境,因此就因此就使得所有其他的生命形式都服从于她们自己这种奇特的想法和想象。

  62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.

  第一分句:

  Social science:社会科学

  branch:分支,此外指一个机构的分支 intellectual:知识的 intellectuals:知识分子 enquiry:(inquiry)探索、探求

  that:此处不是引导句子的引导词,是一个强调词,功能像the。 of结构:有两种修饰关系。

  1、of前面的名词与of本身构成固定搭配,该固定搭配修饰的核心词是后面那个名词。如a number of people

  2、of前面的名词与of本身不构成固定搭配,则由后面那个名词修饰前面那个名词。如a man of importance branch of intellectual enquiry:知识探索的分支 句子翻译:社会科学就是知识探索的一个分支。

  此处定语从句的翻译要从整个句子分割出来,作为一个单独的句子来翻。 seek to do sth.:试图做某事,企图做某事 endeavor:人的各种各样的努力(行为,活动)

  定语从句翻译:自然科学家用来研究自然现象的方法。 reasoned:理性的 orderly:有序的 systematic:系统的 passion:激情 dispassioned:消除激情-冷静的

  翻译:用的是自然科学家用来研究自然现象的那种理性、有序、系统而又冷静的方法。 which引导的定语从句翻译时不能放到enquity前面。

  定语从句翻译时无法确定其主语时,可用一个代词来指代。

  整句翻译:社会科学是知识探索的一个分支,它试图以自然科学家用来研究自然现象的那种理性、有序、系统而又冷静的方法来研究人和人的各种行为。

  63) The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.

  找动词:

  makes的主语只能是以下四种:单数名词、短语、不定式(动名词)、句子。 makes的主语是一个句子,combine是该句子的谓语动词。

  emphasis:强调 data:资料,数据 first-hand:第一手的 second-hand:第二手的

  data gathered first-hand:第一手收集到的资料 句子翻译:对于第一手收集到的资料的强调 combined with:和??一起,和??相结合 cross:超越

  cross-cultural:跨文化的 perspective:视角

  cultures past and present:过去和现在的种种文化 brought to:带来,用来,用于 distinctly:非常明显的

  distinctly important:极其重要,十分重要 unique:独特的,唯一的 unique和only的区别:

  only表示在没有别的选择的情况下只剩下这个,表示这样的唯一;

  unique表示在还有很多选择的情况,由于某物是独一无二的,所以是唯一的。 此处distinctly必须翻译出来,否则会扣分 此外combined with也必须翻译出来 gathered first-hand必须译成前置定语

  brought to 引导的是一个定语来修饰perspective

  整句翻译:对于第一手收集资料的强调,连同在分析过去和现在的文化时所使用的跨文化视角,使得这种研究成为了一个独特而又极其重要的社会科学。

  64) Tylor defined culture as "... that complex whole which includes belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."

  Tylor:英语中的人名 人名翻译的两个要点:

  1、原文中出现像Tylor这种人名,不能原封不动保留到译文中去。

  2、如果翻译的人名是普通人的名字,那翻译的汉字可以随意写;如果是著名的人的名字,那就一定要写约定俗成的几个字。 例如:Churchill要翻译成邱吉尔 Tylor:采用音译:泰勒 define:定义 n.definition that:此处是强调词 complex:复杂的 whole:整体

  译文:泰勒把文化定义为一个复杂的整体。

  出题者认为:最后的后置定语翻译到capabilities或belief前面都正确。 acquire:获得、取得 bellief:信仰

  根据与最后的后置定语的搭配习惯,后置定语最好只翻译到capabilities前面。

  custom(习俗)和habits(习惯)的区别:习俗是习惯的集合、习俗是群体的行为,习惯是个人的行为。

  泰勒把文化定义为一个复杂的整体,它包括信仰、艺术、道德、法律、习俗以及其它任何人作为社会成员所获得的能力和习惯。

  定语从句的译法:

  1、当定语从句的结构复杂,信息负载量比较大时,通常选择将它独立成句,并把先行词补充出来。

  2、当定语从句比较少,结构简单,信息量小,通常可以放到先行词前面,翻成偏正结构。

  65) Thus, the anthropological concept of "culture," like the concept of "set" in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding

  谓语动词:is 、 makes 难点:专有名词

  anthropological:人类学的 mathematics:数学 set:集合

  abstract:抽象的 concrete:具体的 immense:大量的

  makes possible:语法现象上叫宾语后置。 如 get rapid the information 将which引导的定语从句独立成句

  整句翻译:因此,人类学的文化概念就像数学中的“集”的概念一样,是一个抽象的概念,它使得大量的具体研究和理解成为可能。 注意:2003年的考题中没有考特别难的指代关系,很有可能在2004年考,同学们在这方面要多做准备。

  从2003年考题中看出,定语从句是一种长久不衰的题型,因此对定语从句翻译要做深入的了解和准备。 加深对词汇深度的理解。尽量深刻把握词汇的三到四种意思。

  考生关注:

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