Before printing was invented，a scholar had to copycharacters one by one if he wanted to publish a newbook.During the Northern Song Dynasty, Bi Shenginvented the movable-type printing after many yearsof experimentation.He engraved the characters onsmall pieces of clay,and heated them until they became hard movable characters.When printinga book，people placed the moveable characters in order into a whole block and then ran off aprint.After printing, they took the block apart and reused the characters later.This method wasboth economical and time-saving.China's movable-type printing first spread eastward intoKorea and Japan,then westward into Persia and Egypt,and at last,around the world.Theinvention of movable-type printing greatly promoted the cultural exchanges among countriesall over the world.
印刷术发明之前，想出版新书的学者必须一字一字地抄写。北宋时期，经过多年的实验，毕昇发明了活字印刷术(movable-type printing)。他把汉字刻在一小块泥胚(pieces of clay)上，加热汉字直到其变成硬的活字。印书时,人们按顺序将活字摆在一起，印出印迹。印刷完后，他们把字分开，以后重复使用。这种方法既经济又省时。中国的活字印刷术首先向东传至朝鲜和日本，之后向西传至波斯(Persia)和埃及，最后传遍全球。活字印刷术的发明大大促进了世界各国的文化交流。
2.出版新书:可译为publish a new book。
4.泥胚:可译为pieces of clay。clay意为“黏土，陶土”。
6.向东传至朝鲜和日本:可译为spread eastward intoKorea and Japan。