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2015考研英语复习:阅读理解复习的方法

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2014-04-25 23:29:16

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  阅读理解的考试内容、考试重点、难点和复习方法:

  1.考试内容主要包括:所读材料的主旨的事实和有关细节;根据上下文判断大纲附录“词汇表”以外的某些词汇和短语的意义;既理解单句的意义,也理解上下句之间的逻辑关系;根据所给材料进行一定的判断、推理和引申;领会作者的观点和态度。

  2.考试重点:在形式上,考试注重语篇中的段落理解,在句子层次上的理解,整篇的理解及词语的理解;从命题实质上讲,绝大部分是考句子的理解,即题干加上正确选项等于段落中的某一句或两句的意思。另外就是考整篇的理解。

  3.考试难点:

  (1)联系上下文的能力。这主要是考察考生在词语、句子、段落慰次上对词义、词的复现、词的同现、语法和语篇的理解,从而得出正确判断的能力。如:We live a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.

  Question: The word “pervasive” might mean棗

  A widespread B overwhelming C piercing D fashionable

  本题的正确答案是A项。本句是说药物的医用性和社会性“pervasive”:阿司匹林可以缓解头痛,饮用少量酒有助于社交,咖啡使大脑凌晨清醒,抽烟可提神等。可是41.2%的考生选了正确项A项。这说明考生在对句子层次的理解上缺少联系上下文的能力。

  Discoveries in science and technology are thought by “untaught minds” to come in blinding flashes or as the result of dramatic accidents. Sir Alexander Fleming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold(霉)on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then. He experimented with antibacterial substances for mine years before he made his discovery. Inventions and innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score.

  Question: What does the author probably mean by “untaught mind” in the first paragraph?

  A. A person ignorant of the hard work involved in experimentation.

  B. A citizen of a society that restricts personal creativity.

  C. A person who has had no education.

  D. An individual who often come up with new ideas by accident.

  本题的正确选项是A,但大多数考生选了D项。这些考生根本没有联系上下文,就望文生义地选了D项。但也有考生选了C项。考生选A项的只有20.8%。

  (2)概括力,是指考生根据上下文对词语、句子、段落和语篇进行理解,从而对它们进行概括的能力。如:

  And even more incredible is the young brain’s ability to pick out an order in language from the mixture of sound around him, to analyze, to combine and recombine the parts of a language in new ways.

  Question: What is exceptionally remarkable about a child is that .

  本题的正确选项是C项。但大多数考生没有对题干里exceptionally remarkable 多加思考就选了A项和B项。如果考虑到原文中的“… and recombine the parts of a language in new ways”,考生就会选C项。但只有23.8%的考生选对了此项。这说明对句子的概括力是我们的难点。

  This year, 50 percent of the 910, 000 people who suffer from cancer will survive at least five years. In the year 2000, the National Cancer Institute estimates that figure will be 75percent. For some skin cancers, the five-year survival rate is as high as 90percent. But other survival statistics are still discouraging – 13 percent for lung cancer, and 2 percent for cancer of the pancreas(胰腺).

  Question: The author implies that by the year 2000, .

  A.there will be a drastic rise in the five – year survival survival of skin cancer patients.

  B.90 percent of the skin – cancer patients today will still be living.

  C.the survival statistics will be fairly even among patients with various cancers.

  D.there won’t be a drastic increase of survival rate of all cancer patients.

  本题的正确选项是D项。但有53.2%的考生选了A项。这说明考还没有抓住本段的中心思想。如果我们注意到了本段的后半部分“But other survival statistics are still discouraging – 13 percent for lung cancer, and 2 percent for cancer of the pancreas(胰腺).”,就不会有这么多考生选A项。而选正确项D项的只有24%,这说明段落概括力也是一个难点。

  (3)推理能力:

  …People have generally viewed personal growth as an external result or product that can easily be identified and measured.…

  Question: A person is generally believed to achieve personal growth then .

  A he has given up his smoking habit

  B he has made great efforts in his work

  C he is keen on learning anything new

  D he has tried to determine where he is on his journey

  本题的正确答案是A项。但有45%的考生选了B项。原句说:人们通常将个人的成长看作是易于辨认衡量的外在结果或成果。而B项说的还是一个过程而非结果,这说明考生的推力能力还需要加强。

  4.复习方法:

  (1)对于主旨题来讲,主要是看主题句。但在大多数情况下,篇章是没有主题句的。这主要从段落的主题句入手。段落主题句判断方法是看一段的第二句或第三句。如果第二句和第三句是对第一句话进行说明或阐述,那么第一句是主题句。如果第三句对第二句进行阐述,那么第二句是主题句。当然,也有段落主题句在段末的情况。但是,当我们遇到主旨题时,不一定非要找主题句不可。我们不妨先做其他题,等到把其他题做完后,对篇章有了进一步的了解,做主旨题就较为简单了。

  (2)对于阅读理解中的词汇,我们决不能用“前辍”和“后辍”的方法去做题。这种词汇题本身是要求“根据上下文”理解的。例如,上下文中的“untaught mind”不能根据前后辍望文生义选“a person who has no education”。

  (3)对于细节问题我们要从词义和语法着手,包括词义转换、句际关系和语篇理解。

  (4)对于推理题,要注意联系自己掌握的知识进行推理,因为这种题是在理解的基础上考作者与考生之间的shared knowledge,属于应用题型。

  (5)对于“观点”和“态度”题,要注意语篇中的修辞。

考研英语复习指导:2015考研英语长难句四大方法            

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