跨考教育

跨考教育

当前位置: 跨考网 > 公共课 > 英语 > 阅读 > 正文

2015考研英语阅读题源(健康类):Hollywood's Smoke Alarm

来源: 跨考教育

2014-06-06 10:22:40

手机考研网

收藏本文

  时间进入6月份,2014年上半年的假期已经结束,还没有开始复习的考生要收收心,抓紧时间复习了。随着第一阶段的基础复习接近尾声,马上就要进入复习强化阶段,跨考考研网小编为大家整理考研英语阅读题源,希望大家能把握这一分值较大的题型。  

  16. Hollywood's Smoke Alarm

  Onscreen puffing is recruiting a new generation of kids.

  The American screen has long been a smoky place, at least since the 1940s, when Bette Davis and Paul Henreid in Now, Voyager showed how to make and seal a romantic deal over a pair of cigarettes that were smoldering as much as the stars. Today cigarettes are more common on-screen than at any other time since midcentury. 75% of all Hollywood films show tobacco use, according to a 2006 survey by the University of California, San Francisco.

  Audiences, especially kids, are taking notice. Two recent studies, published in the Lancet and Pediatrics, have found that among children as young as 10, those exposed to the most screen smoking are up to 2.7 times as likely as others to pick up the habit. Worse, it's the ones from nonsmoking homes who are hit the hardest, perhaps because they are spared the dirty ashtrays and musty drapes that make real-world smoking a lot less appealing than the sanitized cinematic version.

  Now the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)-the folks behind the U.S. designated-driver campaign-is pushing to get the smokes off the screen. "Some movies show kids up to 14 incidents of smoking per hour," says Barry Bloom, HSPH's dean. “We’re in the business of preventing disease, and cigarettes are the No. 1 preventable cause."

  If there's one thing health experts know, it's that you don't influence behavior by telling people what to do. You do it by exposing them to enough cases of people behaving well that it creates a new norm. What made the designated-driver concept catch on in the 1980s was partly that Harvard and the ad agencies it worked with persuaded TV networks to slip the idea into their shows. There's a reason a designated-driver poster appeared in the bar on Cbeers, and it's not because it made the jokes funnier.

  "The idea appeared in 160 prime-time episodes over four years," says Jay Winsten, HSPH's associate dean. "Drunk-driving fatalities fell 25% over the next three years."

  Harvard long believed that getting cigarettes out of movies could have as powerful an effect, but it wouldn't be easy. Cigarette makers had a history of striking product-placement deals with Hollywood, and while the 1998 tobacco settlement prevents that, nothing stops directors from incorporating smoking into scenes on their own.

  In 1999 Harvard began holding one-on-one meetings with studio execs trying to change that, and last year the Motion Picture Association of America flung the door open, inviting Bloom to make a presentation in February to all the studios. Harvard's advice was direct: Get the butts entirely out, or at least make smoking unappealing.

  A few films provide a glimpse of what a no-smoking-or low -smoking-Hollywood would be like. Producer Lindsay Doran, who once helped persuade director John Hughes to keep Ferris Bueller smoke-free in the 1980s hit, wanted to do the same for the leads of her recent movie Stranger Than Fiction. When a writer convinced her that the character played by Emma Thompson had to smoke, Doran relented, but from the way Thompson hacks her way through the film and snuffs out her cigarettes in a palmful of spit, it's clear the glamour's gone. And remember all the smoking in The Devil Wears Prada? No? That's because the producers of that film kept it out entirely-even in a story that travels from the U.S. fashion world to Paris, two of the most tobacco-happy places on earth. "No one smoked in that movie," says Doran, "and no one noticed."

  Such movies are hardly the rule, but the pressure is growing. As Harvard closes in from one side, a dozen health groups including the American Medical Association are calling fox reduction of smoking in movies and on TV; and 41 state attorneys general have signed a letter seeking, public-service ads at the beginning of any DVD that includes smoking. Like smokers, studios may conclude that quitting the habit is not just a lot healthier but also a Lot smarter.

  词汇注解

  重点单词

  recruit / ri'kru:t /

  【文中释义】 v.征募,吸收

  【大纲全义】v.征募(新兵),吸收;补充 n.新成员,新兵

  smoky / 'sməuki /

  【文中释义】 adj.烟雾弥漫的

  【大纲全义】 adj.冒烟的;多烟的;烟雾弥漫的

  romantic/ rə'mæntik/

  【文中释义】adj.传奇性的

  【大纲全义】adj.浪漫的,传奇式的;不切实际的,好幻想的

  exposed /iks 'pəuzd /

  【文中释义】adj.接触的

  【大纲全义】adj.无掩蔽的,显[暴]露的;接触的

  musty/ 'mʌsti /

  【文中释义】adj.发霉的

  【大纲全义】adj.发霉的;霉臭的;落伍的

  appealing/ə 'pi:liŋ/

  【文中释义】adj.吸引人的

  【大纲全义】adj.有感染力的;引人注意的;吸引人的

  cinematic/,sini 'mætik/

  【文中释义】adj.电影

  【大纲全义】adj.电影的

  version/'və: ʃən/

  【文中释义】n.版本

  【大纲全义】n.版本;译本,译文;说法

  designated/'dezigneitid/

  【文中释义】adj. 指定的

  【大纲全义】adj.指定的,特指的

  preventable /pri'ventəb(ə)I/

  【文中释义】adj.可预防的

  【大纲全义】adj.可防止的,可预防的

  influence /'influəns/

  【文中释义】v.影响

  【大纲全义】n. (on)影响,感化;势力,权势 v.影响,感化

  behave /bi'heiv/

  【文中释义】n.举止,行为

  【大纲全义】v.举止,举动,行为,表现;运转,开动;检点(自己)的行动

  norm /nɔ:m/

  【文中释义】n.规范

  【大纲全义】n.准则,规范,准则,平均数

  concept/'kɔnsept/

  【文中释义】n.观念

  【大纲全义】n.概念,观念,设想

  associate /ə'səuʃieit/

  【文中释义】adj.副的

  【大纲全义】v.联想;交往;联合 n.伙伴,同事,合伙人 adj.联合的;副的

  incorporate /in'kɔ:pəreit/

  【文中释义】v.表现

  【大纲全义】v.合并,纳入,结合 adj.合并的

  fling /fliŋ/

  【文中释义】v.(用力地)扔,抛,丢

  【大纲全义】v. (用力地)扔,抛,丢

  超纲单词

  onscreen adj.电影银幕上的 puffing n.吞云吐雾

  smolder v.燃烧 midcentury n.一个世纪的中叶

  ashtray n.烟灰缸 drape n.窗帘

  sanitized adj.清洁的 exec n.制作

  重点段落译文

  演员们在电影银幕上的吞云吐雾正在影响着我们的下一代。

  美国的电影银幕一直以来就是一个烟雾缭绕的地方。至少从20世纪40年代开始就是这样:电影《扬帆》中,贝特·戴维斯和保罗·亨里德表演了怎样一边吸着烟一边制订和签署一份传奇性的协议。如今,香烟在电影中的出现比20世纪中叶以来的任何时候都更为常见:据旧金山加州大学2006年的一份调查显示,75%的好莱坞电影里包含了吸烟镜头。

  观众—尤其是孩子们,开始注意到这些。最近分别发表在《柳叶刀》和《小儿科》杂志上的两项研究显示,在10岁的儿童中,经常看到吸烟镜头的小孩染上吸烟恶习的概率是其他小孩的2.7倍。更糟糕的是,无烟家庭的孩子更容易受到影响,这可能是因为他们没有见识过肮脏的烟灰缸和发霉的窗帘,因此不知道吸烟在真实世界中并没有干净的电影镜头中那么有吸引力。

  现在,哈佛大学公共卫生学院(HSPH)在禁止酒后驾驶运动之后,正在努力推行让电影远离香烟的运动。哈佛大学公共卫生学院的院长巴里·布鲁姆说:“在一些电影中,孩子们每小时能看到14次吸烟镜头。我们的工作是预防疾病,而香烟是首当其冲要禁止的。”

  如果说健康专家所确知的事,那就是—告诉别人该做什么无法影响到他们的行为。要影响他人,需要使他们身边有足够的正面事例,这样可以创造出新的行为准则。禁止酒后驾车运动在19世纪80年代得以流行,部分原因是哈佛大学及与之合作的广告公司成功地说服了各电视台在电视节目中融人了这一观念。Cheers节目中的酒吧里出现禁止酒后驾车运动的海报是有原因的,而不仅仅是为了让节目更有趣。

  哈佛大学公共卫生学院的副院长杰伊·文斯滕说:“四年多的时间里,抵制酒后驾车的观念在黄金时段播出了160集。酒后驾驶造成的交通事故在接下来的三年里下降了25%。”

  哈佛大学一直相信剔除电影中的吸烟镜头也能达到同样的效果,但要做到这一点不会很容易。烟草商与好莱坞有着长期的产品营销交易的历史。而且,虽然1998年的烟草协议禁止了这一点,好莱坞的导演们仍自顾自地将吸烟镜头纳人到了影片中。

  1999年,哈佛大学开始举行与电影公司经理们的一对一会谈以试图改变这种情况。去年,美国电影协会对他们敞开了大门,并邀请布鲁姆院长在2月向所有电影公司做一次演讲。哈佛的意见是直接的:彻底剔除电影里的吸烟镜头,或者至少使这些镜头不那么具有蛊惑性。

  From Newsweek

  By Carolyn M.Kaelin

  and Francesca Coltrera

  Mar.26,2007

  以上就是跨考考研网为大家整理的考研英语阅读题源,2015年考研真题不一定从这些材料里出题,但是还是提醒大家平时多积累,练好基本功才能在2015年的考场上笑到最后。

  2015年考研英语阅读技巧汇总(超详细)

  2015考研英语阅读暑期复习一点通

  2015年考研备考资料及复习指导汇总(5-7月)

分享到:

相关推荐

跨考网| 研招网| 考研信息网| 关于我们| 加入我们| 联系我们 | 网站导航

跨考手机考研网:http://m.kuakao.com/ 考研从未如此简单

Copyright@2004-2014 www.kuakao.com All Right Reserived 京 ICP备11041699号-3

版权所有:北京尚学硕博教育咨询有限公司

 

公共课保分班

400-883-2220