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2015考研英语冲刺:五方面搞定阅读复习

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2014-10-16 10:49:40

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    坊间流传英语是的阅读者得天下,各位考研人只要稍有留心便知阅读在考研英语中所占的比例,也就晓得此言不虚。阅读作为单词、词组、语法等英语知识点的综合考察项目,在冲刺阶段要想有所突破,就必须抓住“一个中心、两个注意、三个重视、四个原则和五个基本考点”。

   【一个中心】

  所谓一个中心主要包含两个方面:

  一、一篇文章有一个中心,全文均是围绕文章中心展开。

  阅读理解中,广大考生首先面临的难题之一,就是如何在读完文章之后,有效地提炼出文章的中心。其实提炼中心的方法早在我们中学学习语文的时候,老师已经教给我们。文章中心可以概括为一句或者几句话。有的文章在一开始就会开门见山提出文章的中心。有的文章第一段进行背景介绍,进而在第二段提出文章中心。但是,有的文章也需要考生读完之后,自己通过对各段叠加,概括出文章的中心思想。如果考生读完文章之后,仍然无法提炼出文章的中心,那么一定要找出反映文章中心思想的词语(或词组),即所谓的“核心词”。这个核心词往往会在每个段落反复提到,以名词居多。

  ★阅读小贴士:注意高频词汇或词组。有些时候,高频词汇或词组以不同的形式出现,它们很可能是本篇短文的中心或关键问题或事物。

  【例如】The world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. The process sweeps from hyperactive America to Europe and reaches the emerging countries with unsurpassed might. Many in these countries are looking at this process and worrying: “Won’t the wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrollable anticompetitive force? ”

  通过略读我们可以发现文章的中心词/词组为the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions, the process, this process, the wave of business concentration.文章顿时变得一目了然。

  二、一个段落会有一个中心

  英语文章段落会有严格的成分构成。一般说来,英语的一个段落由三部分构成:主题句+扩展句+结尾句

  1、所谓主题句是指一个段落的中心思想句,往往位于句首。

  2、所谓扩展句是指解释、论证、说明主题句的句子,最为明显的标志词如for example, for instance等。

  3、所谓结尾句是指总结陈述主题句的句子,往往可以省略。因此,读文章的过程中,每个段落的首末句要放慢速度,尤其是首句一定要放慢速度。当然任何规则也都会有例外。有些时候,文章段落不会出现主题句,需要读者自己去提炼。

  【例如】Consumers say they’re not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, “there’s a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses,” says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. “Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three,” say John Deadly, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job.

  很明显In Manhattan,----和In San Francisco,----这两句话构成了对Home prices are holding steady in most regions.这句话的解释,通过两个城市房价的变化,来论证说明为什么房价在许多地区仍然比较稳定。所以我们也就不难做出下面的题目

  53. When mentioning “the $4 million to $10 million range” (lines 3-4, paragraph 3) the author is talking about                .

  A. gold market

  B. real estate

  C. stock exchange

  D. venture investment

  ★阅读小贴士:注意路标词即过渡词。路标词或词组,可以帮助考生有效理解作者思想的具体衔接和转折过渡等,从而有效把握前后句之间的关系。最常见的过渡词有:

  1、此外besides=moreover=furthermore=in addition

  2、更重要的是more than that; 同样重要的是equally important; 更more/less

  3、而且/并且and; 而且,也also

  4、表先后顺序:first, second/next

  5、同样: likewise; 或者alternatively

  6、因此,表“因果”so=therefore=thus=consequently=accordingly=as a result=and so

  7、总而言之,表“结论”as a result=finally=above all=after all=concluding=hence=to sum up=in conclusion

  8、但是;表“转折”but= yet= however= on the other hand= while= nonetheless= nevertheless= otherwise

  尽管although= though= despite= instead= in spite of= on the contrary= notwithstanding= rather= in contrast

  9、表“空间位置”near, far, beside, next to, above, under, behind, in front of, across, on the side of

  10、表“目的”for this purpose, so that, in order to

  11、表“强调”in fact, indeed, surely, certainly, to be sure, I am certain

  12、表“举例”for example= for instance= such as= specifically= to be specific= in particular= to illustrate this= thus

  13、表“条件”in that case, that being so, in these circumstances, if, unless, otherwise

  

  【两个注意】

  主要是指,读文章的过程中,有些内容可以一带而过,加快阅读速度。

  一、注意“放过”

  考试过程中,如果遇到难词或难句,考生可以稍作停顿进行考虑,如果仍然无法理解,那么就需要迅速放过去。包括在做题的过程中,有些题目本身难度很大,可以先放一放,其他题目做完之后再做该题目还是不错的。

  二、注意“删除”:就是可以迅速读过去,无需停顿。

  1、插入语

  (1)特征:通常情况下主谓之间用两个逗号或者双破折号引起的成分,称为插入语。

  例如:We should not forget, however, that most New Englanders were less well educated.

  (2)作用:

  ①突出主语:Defenders of the Corporation—of whom there are many—are fond of quoting the American slogan “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”

  ②解释说明:The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC—including ordinary listeners and viewers— to say what was good or bad about the Corporation.

  2、人名、地名后的修饰成分

  【例如】Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada.

  句子中黑体下划线处就可以完全省略不看,加快阅读速度。

  ★ 阅读小贴士:阅读理解中,遇到人名、地名一律简写。

  【例如】Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large “comfortable” classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders’ meeting to dictate their orders to the management.

  句中黑体下划线处可以简单理解为B和E城市。

  3、举例处

  (1)for example; for instance; such as

  这种举例目的在于论证论点,而论点往往位于论据之前,因此,for example/instance和such as 这种举例标志词引导的句子往往是非重点,前面的论点句子才更为重要。

  (2)first; second/ next/ moreover/ in addition/ furthermore

  这种举例论证处,由于例子超过了一个,因此比较符合命题规律。如果阅读理解中出现first, 一定会有第二个例子(甚至更多的例子)出现,标志词不仅仅只限于second, 还有next, moreover, in addition, furthermore等。

  ★阅读小贴士:“2快1慢”。第一、初次浏览文章要快:把握文章主旨大意;第二、检索信息、寻找答案要快;第三、找到有关句子或段落,需要仔细研究理解要放慢速度。

  

  【三个重视】

  三个重视,主要强调在做题的过程中,如何更为有效地排除干扰选项;特别是在选项看不懂的情况下,往往需要重视以下三点。

  一、感情色彩词

  所谓“感情色彩词”是指,句子的表述总会带有作者的感情色彩,最为明显的感情色彩可以分为好与坏。根据好与坏的感情色彩进行选项排除,可以避免做题的时候遇到不会的问题乱蒙的现象。

  【例如】5. According to the author, the American economic situation is           .

  A. not as good as it seem.

  B. At its turning point

  C. Much better than it seems

  D. Near to complete recovery

  原文:Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is whether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are pre-siding over is for real.

  解题:根据划线处,我们会发现该句中“harder to do sth”表示的感情色彩是不好的,根据这一线索,我们很自然地就会选出A选项。

  二、语气词

  1、含有委婉选项词(may; might; be likely to do; be unlikely to do)的选项保留

  2、绝对选项词(only, all)的选项往往首先排除。

  特别是在做推断题目时这一招,非常管用。

  【例如】what can be inferred about intelligence testing from Paragraph 3?

  A. people no longer use IQ scores as an indicator of intelligence.

  B. More versions of IQ tests are now available on the Internet.

  C. The test contents and formats for adults and children may be different.

  D. Scientists have defined the important elements of human intelligence.

  通过观察选项,我们可以初步确定C选项为我们青睐的选项,而答案选C。

  三、时态

  考研阅读理解,选项的时态对于答案的正误产生直接性影响。一般说来

  1、have done表示已经完成,事情已经做了;did也表示事情已经做过。

  2、doing表示事情正在进行中。

  3、will, may表示事情将要做,还没有做。

  所以考生在考试中一定要看清楚原文句子的时态,否则,做题会因为时态的混淆选错答案。

  【例如】From the passage we can infer that             ?

  A. reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate

  B. creationists do not base their argument on reasoning

  C. evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialist

  D. creationism is supported by scientific findings

  原文:and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.

  解题:这个句子是一个含有虚拟语气的句子,还原一下语序可以变为:

  If reason were the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate, all would be well.

  翻译:如果理性是神创论和进化论争论的唯一评判标准的话,那么认识事物都可以被很好的予以解决。

  虚拟是一种假设,即这件事情目前根本不存在,不能构成事实。所以,选项A在时态上就与原文不符,应该首先予以排除。

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