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2015年考研英语阅读文章练习之历史学类(2)

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2014-10-17 15:28:07

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  We now must address two questions:

  Firstly,where on Earth is the population problem the worst?

  It is my opinion that the world's worst population problem is right here in the United States. This is because of our high per capita resource consumption. It has been estimated that a person added to the population of the United States will have 30 or more times the impact on world resources as will a person added to the population of an underdeveloped nation. Indeed, resource consumption in North America is roughly the same as resource consumption in the entire rest of the world.

  Secondly,where should we apply our efforts to have the most beneficial effect in helping to solve the population problem?

  The answer is, right here in the U.S..

  For many people, the population problem is a problem of "those people" in distant undeveloped countries. In early 1997, many people successfully lobbied Congress to restore family planning assistance in the U.S. foreign aid programs. This was a great victory, but it treats "those people" as though they were the big problem.

  Unchecked population growth in the Third World means depletion of water resources. It means famine. It means suffering. It pushes populations to clear rainforests. It pushes populations to go out and graze on land that cannot sustain cattle, and that leads to expansion of deserts worldwide. We all have a stake in the global environment.

  It is so easy to blame the problem on others and to identify what other people should do to solve the problem, while we ignore our own responsibilities and avoid doing anything to reduce the population problem in the U.S.. We need to work to stop population growth in the U.S..

  There are two sources that contribute approximately equally to population growth in the U.S.: the excess of births over deaths, and immigration. Both of these must be addressed.

  Let's compare three aspects of efforts to stop population growth in other countries with efforts to stop population growth in the United States.

  1) When we give family planning assistance to other countries, we are dealing with countries over which we have no legal jurisdiction and where we have little or no immediate political responsibility.

  When we confront population growth in the United States, we are dealing with a country where we as citizens have full and complete jurisdiction, and where we have political and family responsibilities. It should be much easier to solve our problem than it is to solve other peoples' problems.

  2) The negative effects of runaway population growth in an underdeveloped country are generally felt only in that country and in its immediate neighbors.

  The negative effects of population growth in the U.S. are felt throughout the entire world, because of our enormous per capita consumption of resources. Indeed, one of the aims of the many free-trade agreements about which we currently hear so much, is to open up the world's resources for consumption by consumers in the U.S..

  3) In countries receiving family planning assistance from the U.S. there will always be individuals who will claim that this assistance is a form of "genocide." They will be strengthened in this belief if we in the U.S. fail to take steps to halt our own population growth. As Tim Wirth of the U.S. Department of State has said, the best thing that we in the U.S. can do to help other countries stop their population growth, is to set an example and stop our own population growth.

  As you think about addressing the problem of population growth in the U.S., please ponder this challenge:

  Can you think of any problem, on any scale, from microscopic to global, whose long-term solution is in any demonstrable way, aided, assisted, or advanced, by having continued population growth at the local level, the state level, the national level, or globally?

  So we can see that Pogo was right:

  "We've met the enemy, and they're us!"

  1.What did the author mainly talk about?

  [A] The population problem in the world.

  [B] The population condition in the western world.

  [C] The population problem in Europe.

  [D] The population problem in the U.S.

  2. According to the author, which place should solve the population proplem?

  [A] The US

  [B] Europe

  [C] Underdeveloped countries

  [D] The Third World

  3. What did the Congressman think about the population problem?

  [A] He thought that the problem was worst in America.

  [B] He thought that the problem caused many other problems in the world.

  [C] He thought that the problem cannot be solved easily.

  [D] He thought that the problem in the Third World was to be blamed.

  4. Why are the negative effects of population growth in the U.S. felt throughout the entire world?

  [A] Because people around the world are all concerned about it.

  [B] Because per capita consumption of resources in America is enormous.

  [C] Because the U.S. is the most powerful country in the world.

  [D] Because the U.S .has great influence on other countries.

  5. Which is one of the reasons for the Americans to pay attention to their population problem?

  [A] Because some people always claim that the American assistance for family planning in other countries is a form of "genocide".

  [B] Because there are too many migrants nowadays.

  [C] Because once the population is too large, the American government will adopt unfavorable policies to limit migrants' coming to it.

  [D] Because America is now facing a lot of problems.

  [疑难长句翻译与注解]

  1.where should we apply our …effect in helping to solve the population problem?

  [译文]我们应当从哪方面入手下功夫去寻求最有效的方法来解决人口问题?

  [注解]该句是倒装句,译成汉语时要把语序调整过来。

  2.For many people, the of those people in distant undeveloped countries.

  [译文]对于许多人来说,人口问题只是那些遥远的不发达国家才会面临的问题。

  [注解]这句话是一个引子,作者的目的是用它表明错误的观念,用以引出自己的见解。“in distant undeveloped countries”是用来修饰“those people”的。

  3.In early 1997, many people successfully …as though they were the big problem.

  [译文] 在 1997 年早期,很多人成功地说服国会恢复了对外计划生育援助计划,这是一个巨大的胜利,但这使得“那些人”(的问题)好像已经是大问题了似的。

  [注解]“family planning”是计划生育的意思。

  4.It is so easy to blame the problem on others… and avoid doing anything to reduce the population problem in the U.S.

  [译文]解决问题时只是把问题归罪给他人,考虑别人应该怎样做这很容易,但与此同时,我们忽视了我们自己的责任,没有自己做出行动来减少美国的人口问题。

  [ 注 解] “ blame the problem on others ” 这 个 短 语 在 文 中 是 指 把 问 题 归 罪 于 别 人 .“ ignore our own responsibilities”是指忽视我们自己的责任。

  5.The negative effects of …per capita consumption of resources.

  [译文]全世界都感受到了美国人口增长所带来的负面影响,因为我们的资源要按人口品均消费量来计算。

  [注解]该句话言外之意是说美国如果人口增长,那么这批增长了的人口将会消耗新的自然资源。而世界自然资源则是有限的。

  参考答案:

  1. [D]文章开篇就提出了问题:全世界什么地方人口问题最为严峻?然后作者陈述了自己的观点,在他看来,美国是人口问题最严重的国家,因为在全国范围内出生率与高于死亡率,并且近几十年来大量移民涌入美国。后文通篇都在论述作者的这一观点,因此选 D 项。

  2. [A]仔细阅读文章第四、第五段,就能理解题意,找出正确答案。

  3. [D]文章中的第六段和第七段都在讲大多数人在提到人口问题是都将其归究于发展中和不发达的第三世界国家,就如同一位有代表性的国会议员讲的话那样,第三世界国家的人口问题导致了水资源的过度消耗,饥荒,灾难等等问题。因此 D 项为正确选项。

  4. [B]此题是细节题,根据文中第六段所体现的相关信息,就不难作出正确判断了。

  5. [A]文章倒数第五段指出,美国在帮助其他一些国家搞人口控制、计划生育时,总有人会说这是美国的一种“有计划的灭绝和屠杀”政策。因此,如果美国自己不在控制人口增长的问题上做出榜样的话,那些认为美国有屠杀他国人的动机的观点就会得到证实。这是美国需要注意其人口问题的原因之一。因此选 A 项。

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