Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people don’t know where they should go next.
The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan’s rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with
school life, compared with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed. While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression. “Those things that do not show up in the test scores — personality, ability, courage or humanity — are completely ignored,” says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party’s education committee. “Frustration against this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild.” Last year Japan experienced 2,125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyams, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War Ⅱ had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents.”
But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. “In Japan,” says educator Yoko Muro, “it’s never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can endure.” With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japan’s 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, two generation households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work) and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly one-quarter. (可读性：34.9 难度：12级)
1、In the Westerner’s eyes, the postwar Japan was
[A] under aimless development. a positive example.
[C] a rival to the West.
[D] on the decline.
2、According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible for the moral decline of Japanese society?
[A] Women’s participation in social activities is limited.
More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs.
[C] Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics.
[D] The life-style has been influenced by Western values.
3、Which of the following is true according to the author?
[A] Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb the social ladder.
Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning as well as creativity.
[C] More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity.
[D] Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking.
2、题干关键词为chiefly 和be responsible for。 <3>末句：日本教育大臣说过，二战后占领日本的美国当局进行自由化改革削弱了日本人尊敬父母的道德观。 <4>①：但是，这(道德)也计与日本人的生活方式关系更大。将两句联在一起看，作者认为日本社会道德下降的主要原因是：
以偏概全。借用了 <2 >末句的完整意思，但是该句不是观点，而是一次调查结果，是具体的事实，并非全部。[C]以偏概全。 <3 >①：由于重视基础知识，所以忽视了其他方面的教育。 <4 >①：但是，这(道德下降)也许与日本人的生活方式关系更大。所以[C]是次要原因。
3、 <3 >①：“尽管由于强调基础教育而受到外国人的赞赏，但是日本教育往往强调应试和机械性学习而忽视创造性及自我表现”，作者暗示日本教育更应该强调创造能力的培养，所以[C]正确。
[A]断章取义。将 <2 >①中“climbing social ladder”和 <3 >①中“often praised by foreigners for”拼在一起唬人。小动作。将 <3 >①中over改成as well as。失之毫厘，谬以千里。
[D]因果倒置。 <3 >③：考试失败导致学生辍学。