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考研英语:阅读七大“干扰项”特点

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2015-09-01 16:03:37

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  我们在做英语阅读时,往往觉得自己看懂了文章,做题也很顺利,但是就是答案不正确,也总是在某两个选项中徘徊,觉得两个都对。因此,对错选项的分析从某种角度来说比正确选项更有意义。那么我们就来看看在考研英语阅读中,出题者都是从哪些方面设置干扰项的。  

 

  总的来说,干扰项从语言和内容两方面欺骗大家。虽然花样很多,但总是有些规律可循的。出题者在编错误选项时,就像一个大骗子,试想骗子的伎俩有哪些呢?首先是把假的说成真的,所谓以假乱真,其次是真真假假,虚虚实实,所谓掉包,再次是夸大其词,或以偏概全,一会儿把苹果说成灵丹妙药,一会儿又说灵丹妙药根本不存在。

  对干扰项的对策有以下7种:

  1、合理项:文章中没提到,利用生活常识编造出来的选项同。对策:做题不可凭空想象,一切都要从文中找依据。在相当多的情况下“项不是解”。

  2、断章取义:使用文章中出现的词语或类似的结构仿造。对策:原词越多,对的可能性越小。

  3、小动作:错误选项和原文句子几乎一样,但在细微之处做了手脚,改动了几个小词,使得意思和原文不相符。对策:仔细,仔细,再仔细!不仅要看大意,更要看细节。

  4、以偏概全:就是用文章中的细节片面的、次要的观点回答问题。对策:时刻要有一种博大的胸襟。

  5、张冠李戴(把一个事物的特征说成是另一个事物的特征,把他人的观点说成是作者的观点)、正反倒置(把作者观点的反面说成是作者的观点)、因果倒置(把因说成果,把果说成因)。对策:头脑清楚。

  6、过度引申:考研测试推理能力是很正常的,但有相当多的选项,过度推理,超出文章的范围。对策:掌握好分寸。

  7、字面意思:被测试的单词或短语,实际(深层)含义和表面上个别词汇的意思不同。出题者经常用表面意思作为干扰项。对策:字面意思不是解。

  例:

  Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people don’t know where they should go next.

  The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan’s rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with

  school life, compared with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed. While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression. “Those things that do not show up in the test scores — personality, ability, courage or humanity — are completely ignored,” says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party’s education committee. “Frustration against this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild.” Last year Japan experienced 2,125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyams, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War Ⅱ had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents.”

  But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. “In Japan,” says educator Yoko Muro, “it’s never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can endure.” With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japan’s 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, two generation households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work) and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly one-quarter. (可读性:34.9 难度:12级)

  1、In the Westerner’s eyes, the postwar Japan was

  [A] under aimless development. a positive example.

  [C] a rival to the West.

  [D] on the decline.

  2、According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible for the moral decline of Japanese society?

  [A] Women’s participation in social activities is limited.

  More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs.

  [C] Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics.

  [D] The life-style has been influenced by Western values.

  3、Which of the following is true according to the author?

  [A] Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb the social ladder.

  Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning as well as creativity.

  [C] More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity.

  [D] Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking.

  解析:

  1、 <1>①“缺乏目标从来就不是战后日本的典型特征,日本国的生产率和社会的和谐令欧美人羡慕”,可见战后日本是一个正面榜样,故正确。

  [A]小动作:把 <1>①关键词保留下来,但hardly去掉了,结果意思大相径庭,原文的否定变成了肯定;

  [C]字面意思:envy(羡慕,嫉妒)的字面意思;

  [D]断章取义:使用②中“decline”编造。

  2、题干关键词为chiefly 和be responsible for。 <3>末句:日本教育大臣说过,二战后占领日本的美国当局进行自由化改革削弱了日本人尊敬父母的道德观。 <4>①:但是,这(道德)也计与日本人的生活方式关系更大。将两句联在一起看,作者认为日本社会道德下降的主要原因是:

  [D]“生活方式受了西方价值观的影响”,故[D]正确。

  [A]正反倒置。<2>①提到女性进入男性占主导地位的人才市场,和[A]正好相反,而且[A]也是符合生活常识的合理项。

  以偏概全。借用了 <2 >末句的完整意思,但是该句不是观点,而是一次调查结果,是具体的事实,并非全部。[C]以偏概全。 <3 >①:由于重视基础知识,所以忽视了其他方面的教育。 <4 >①:但是,这(道德下降)也许与日本人的生活方式关系更大。所以[C]是次要原因。

  3、 <3 >①:“尽管由于强调基础教育而受到外国人的赞赏,但是日本教育往往强调应试和机械性学习而忽视创造性及自我表现”,作者暗示日本教育更应该强调创造能力的培养,所以[C]正确。

  [A]断章取义。将 <2 >①中“climbing social ladder”和 <3 >①中“often praised by foreigners for”拼在一起唬人。小动作。将 <3 >①中over改成as well as。失之毫厘,谬以千里。

  [D]因果倒置。 <3 >③:考试失败导致学生辍学。

  [D]颠倒了因果关系。

 

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