跨考教育

跨考教育

当前位置: 跨考网 > 公共课 > 英语 > 阅读 > 正文

2016考研英语阅读题源经济学人文章:下一个太空

来源: 跨考教育

2015-09-07 14:50:44

手机考研网

收藏本文

  每年考研英语阅读篇章很多都取材于经济学人,因此随着2016年考研越来越近,建议考生们多读一些阅读理解出处的文章,提升阅读能力!

  2016考研英语阅读题源经济学人文章:下一个太空

  Leaders Satellites Space: the next startup frontier

  社论精粹 卫星 太空:下一个

  Where nanosats boldly go, new businesses will follow—unless they are smothered with excessiveregulations

  微型卫星大胆地去哪儿,新的商业就会跟去哪儿—除非他们受到过度监管的阻碍

  AROUND 1,000 operational satellites are circling theEarth, some of them the size and weight of a large car. In the past year they have been joinedby junior offspring: 100 or so small satellites, some of them made up of one or more 10cm (4-inch) cubes. They may be tiny, but each is vastly more capable than Sputnik, the first man-made satellite launched by Russia in 1957. And many more are coming.

  大约1000颗运转着的卫星正围绕着地球旋转,其中有些卫星的体积和重量和汽车差不多。去年,初级后代加入了他们的队伍:100颗左右的小卫星,他们中有些是由一个或多个10厘米(4英尺)的立方体组成。他们可能很小,但是他们每个都比1957年前苏联发射的首颗人造卫星Sputnik功能性强得多。而且还有更多这样的卫星即将面世。

  Space hardware used to cost so much that it was available only to generals, multinationals andthe most privileged scientists. No more. Many of these nanosats, as small satellites weighing nomore than a few kilograms are called, have been launched for small companies, startups anduniversity departments, sometimes with finance raised on crowdfunding websites. Theirconstruction costs can be down in the tens of thousands of dollars, which makes themthousands of times cheaper than today's big satellites. Admittedly, there is much they cannotdo, but with that sort of price differential, and some ingenious use of the abilities they dohave, they could be surprisingly competitive players on a number of fronts. In the next fiveyears another 1,000 nanosats are expected to be launched.

  过去,太空硬件太贵了,只有将军,跨国公司和最享有特权的科学家才能有权使用。没有其他人有权使用。许多这种微型卫星——由于小卫星质量不超过几千克而得此名——已经提供给小公司、新创办的公司和大学一些系发射,有时在集体融资网站集资。他们的制造成本可以降低好几万美元,这使得他们比目前的大卫星便宜成千上万倍。不可否认的,这些卫星有许多办不了的事儿,但是在那种价格差下,加以巧妙使用他们已有的功能,他们可以在许多方面出乎意料地成为有竞争力的选手。在接下来的五年,还有1000颗微型卫星有望被发射出去。

  Two trends are setting up nanosats for further success. Like people working on everythingfrom robots to 3D printers, nanosat builders are harvesting the benefits of ever better, evercheaper components built for smartphones and other consumer electronics. Some nanosatseven contain complete smartphones, making use of the clever operating systems, radios andcameras which phones now contain. For as long as phones go on getting cheaper and morecapable, so will nanosats. The cheapest so far—a tiny chipsat—was assembled for just $25,though it has yet to be successfully launched.

  两个趋势为微型卫星进一步的成功奠定了基础。就像从研究机器人到3D打印的人们一样,微型卫星的制造者从智能手机和其他家用电子产品中获得了更廉价更好的元件。有些微型卫星甚至装有整个手机装置,利用手机目前现有的智能的操作系统、电台和照相机功能。只要手机在一直降价并且越来越智能化,微型卫星也会同样变便宜并且更智能。目前最便宜的——微型芯片卫星——只花了25美元进行配置,尽管它暂时还没有被成功发射出去。

  The launch systems too are getting much cheaper. SpaceX, the innovative rocket-makerfounded by Elon Musk, has already brought down the costs of getting into space; it and itscompetitors could reduce them a lot further. The biggest beneficiaries will at first be people whomake big satellites. But more big satellites will mean more opportunities for small satellites topiggy-back on their launches. And some companies are looking at cheap little launch systemstailored specifically to the needs of the nanosatellite. One reason space engineers arenotoriously conservative is that the costs of failure are high. As making and launchingsatellites gets cheaper, it will be ever easier for innovative, risk-taking nanosat-makers to orbitaround the lumbering incumbents.

  发射系统也越来越便宜了。伊隆?马斯克创办的创新火箭制造公司太空探索技术公司已经降低了发射卫星到太空的成本了,该公司及其竞争对手可以进一步降低发射成本。最大的受益人首先就是制造大型卫星的人。但是越多大型卫星发射就意味着越多的机会给小卫星。一些公司在研究廉价小型发射系统专用于满足微型卫星的需求。太空工程师出了名的保守一个原因是失败的代价太高。随着制造和发射卫星越来越便宜,微型卫星制造者就越容易进行创新和冒险环绕XX运行。

  Size does impose limits. Nanosats cannot peer as closely at the Earth or carry out as manyexperiments as big satellites. But for some jobs that does not matter. The plans thatcompanies already have include using nanosats for monitoring crops, studying the sun andtracking ships and aircraft. Such a system might have been able to track Malaysian Airlinesflight MH370, which went missing in March.

  体积确实会产生限制。微型卫星不能像大型卫星一样把地球看得那么仔细,也不能像大型卫星一样进行那么多实验。但是对有些工作来说,体积并不重要。公司现有的计划包括用微型卫星监控农作物,研究太阳和追踪船只和飞机。这种系统可能可以追踪三月份失踪的马航MH370。

  Nano can do

  微型卫星可以做到

  Yet not everyone is thrilled. One worry is that constellations of nanosats will mean a big increasein space junk; but, operating in low-Earth orbit, they burn up on re-entry after a year or so.And being cheap, they can soon be replaced with newer models. A more serious concern is thatthey are a “dual-use” technology: they could be used for military purposes. In America thishas led to onerous restrictions.

  但是没有人很兴奋。其中一个担忧是一群微型卫星就意味着太空垃圾大量增加,但是,如果在近地轨道运行,这些卫星就会烧掉或者一年后重新进入轨道。因为便宜,这些卫星可以很快被更新的型号取代。更应该关注的是他们是“军民两用”的技术:这些卫星也可以用于军事用途。在美国,这个引发了麻烦的限制。

  Barack Obama's administration has sensibly repealed a law of 1999 that required all satellitesto be licensed by the State Department as munitions under the International Traffic in ArmsRegulations (ITAR). This could mean that most commercial satellites will be removed from ITARby the end of the year and their export administered by the Commerce Department. But somesatellite systems and spacecraft—including anything that can carry people into space—willremain under ITAR.

  巴拉克?奥巴马的政府明智地撤销了1999年的一项法规,这项法规规定所有的卫星都要遵循《国际武器贸易条例》,作为军需品通过国务院授权。这可能意味着嘴商业化的卫星将于今年年底从国际武器贸易条例中去除,并且他们的出口受商务部管理。但是一些卫星系统和飞机——包括一切可以载人进入太空的东西—还是要遵循《国际武器贸易条例》。

  Care needs to be taken with military kit, but America's regulations still seem excessive. Aregular review to distinguish between systems that pose a real threat and ones that don'twould be a help, as would better intelligence. Tight restrictions on new technologies will notwork, and will damage America's interests: exciting new ventures like nanosats will simply moveto countries from which they can be launched with greater ease.

  军用装备需要小心,但是美国的条例看起来还是过分了。定期检查区分形成真正威胁的系统和没有形成威胁的系统会有效,还会更明智。对新技术的严格限制不会有用,还会损害美国的利益:像微型卫星那样令人兴奋的新冒险只会转移到发射更容易的国家去。

  1.only to 仅仅为了;结果是

  例句:They are there only to satisfy their ghoulishcuriosity.

  他们去那里纯粹是为了满足其病态的好奇心。

  2.a number of 许多;若干

  例句:And a number of African countries, too, areslipping through the net.

  并且一些非洲国家也被漏掉了。

  3.expect to 期许

  例句:I do expect to have some time to myself in the evenings.

  我确实希望晚上能有些属于自己的时间。

  4.make use of 利用;使用

  例句:Not all nursery schools make use of the opportunities open to them.

  并不是所有的托儿所都能抓住他们面临的机会。

相关推荐
考研指南
各高校2016年专业课考研大纲2016考研大纲解析
复习指导
微积分与极限微分复习要点归纳
考研阅读常见短语集锦
重点推荐
考研英语阅读必备实用技巧

实例分析:马原辩证法三大规律

关注"跨考教育",听说考研的人都关注了!

分享到:

相关推荐

跨考网| 研招网| 考研信息网| 关于我们| 加入我们| 联系我们 | 网站导航

跨考手机考研网:http://m.kuakao.com/ 考研从未如此简单

Copyright@2004-2014 www.kuakao.com All Right Reserived 京 ICP备11041699号-3

版权所有:北京尚学硕博教育咨询有限公司

 

公共课保分班

400-883-2220