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2016-05-16 19:12:14






Science, in practice, depends far less on the experiments it prepares than on the preparedness of the minds of the men who watch the experiments. Sir Isaac Newton supposedly discovered gravity through the fall of an apple. Apples had been falling in many places for centuries and thousands of people had seen them fall. But Newton for years had been curious about the cause of the orbital motion of the moon and planets. What kept them in place? Why didn’t they fall out of the sky? The fact that the apple fell down toward the earth and not up into the tree answered the question he had been asking himself about those larger fruits of the heavens, the moon and the planets.

How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree? Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering. His mind was ready for the unpredictable. Unpredictability is part of theessential nature of research. If you don’t have unpredictable things, you don’t have research. Scientists tend to forget this when writing their cut and dried reports for the technical journals, but history is filled with examples of it.

In talking to some scientists, particularly younger ones, you might gather the impression that they find the “scientific method” a substitute for imaginative thought. I’ve attended research conferences where a scientist has been asked what he thinks about the advisability of continuing a certain experiment. The scientist has frowned, looked at the graphs, and said, “The data are still inconclusive.” We know that, the men from the budget office have said, “but what do you think? Is it worthwhile going on? What do you think we might expect?” The scientist has been shocked at having even been asked to speculate.

What this amounts to, of course, is that the scientist has become the victim of his own writings. He has put forward unquestioned claims so consistently that he not only believes them himself, but also has convinced industrial and business management that they are true. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the “odd balls” among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who “work well with the team.”







blame v. 谴责,责备;归咎 n. 责任,过失

例句:I don’t blame you for the failure of the exam. 我不因为考试的失败而责怪你。

词组:blame sth on 把某事归咎于……;blame sb. for sth. 因某事责备某人;in blame of 责备

budget n. 预算

例句:Most of our defense budget goes for conventional forces and manpower. 我们大部分的国防预算是用在常规力量和人员上面。

conference n. 会议,协商会,讨论会

例句:After the interview they held a press conference together. 会谈后,他们共同举行了记者招待会。

词组:in conference 正在开会讨论;have a conference with 和……协商

Conformity n. 符合,依照(法规,习俗等)

派生:conform v. 遵守,依照,符合,顺应(与to 连用)

例句:We should act in conformity with rules and laws. 我们应该依照规定和法律办事。

词组:in conformity with sth. 与某事物相一致

conventional a. 按惯例办事的,守旧的;传统的

派生:convention n. 惯例,习俗;大会,会议

例句:After a few conventional remarks, he made a brilliant speech. 讲了几句套话后,他做了一个非常精彩的演讲。

Convince v. 使某人确信,使某人明白

派生:convinced a. 被说服的 convincing a. 令人信服的

例句:What he said convinced me of the truth. 他所说的话使我相信了这个事实。

词组:convince sb. of sth. 使某人相信某事

提示:convince 只能做及物动词,后面跟sb. 做其宾语。

curious a. 好奇的,好打听的

派生:curiosity n. 好奇心

例句:She is curious about what has happened. 她很想知道发生了什么。

词组:be curious about 对……好奇;be curious to do 很想(做);渴望(做)

Distract v. 转移注意力;迷惑,扰乱

例句:The noise in the classroom distracted me from reading. 教室里的嘈杂声使我不能集中注意力看书。


essential a. 必要的;本质的

例句:We must dispose of too many essential features of the investigated phenomenon. 我们不得不排除所研究现象的许多基本特征。

辨析:essential, fundamental, vital

essential 指属于本事物最本质的东西或者能与其他事物相区别的特征;fundamental 指某一体系事物或建筑的基础;vital 指重要的,对事物的存在、持续的活力或效率必不可少的。

faithfully ad. 忠诚地,诚实地

派生:faithful a. 忠诚的,可靠的 faith n. 信任,信用;信仰

例句:The old nurse has served the family faithfully for forty years. 这个老保姆为这个家庭忠诚地服务了四十年。

frown v. 皱眉;表示不高兴

例句:The government frowns at any waste of taxpayers’ money. 政府对任何浪费纳税者财税的行为表示不满。

词组:frown on/upon 不赞成,不以为然

gravity n. 重力,引力

例句:Gravity, although the weakest known force, is the only universal force. 引力虽然是已知力中最弱的力,它却是唯一普遍存在的力。

inconclusive a. 非决定性的;不确定的

例句:The jury found the evidence against the prisoner inconclusive and acquitted him. 陪审团发现控告罪犯的罪证不确凿,所以放了他。


indicate v. 提示,引起对……注意;表示;暗示

派生:indication n. 指示;象征,迹象 indicator n. 指示器 indicative a. 指示的,象征的(常与of 连用)

例句:A signpost on the road indicates the right way for the drivers. 马路上的路标为司机标出适合的路。

orbital a. 轨道的

例句:If it fails, a new cargo spaceship must be launched to transport cargo to the orbital station. 如果失败必须发射新的载货飞船为轨道站运送货物。

predict v. 语言,预示

派生:predictable a. 可语言的 predictor n. 预言家 prediction n. 语言;预报

例句:Could Marx predict that the October Revolution would take place in backward Russia? 马克思能预料到在一个落后的俄国会实现十月革命吗?

speculate v. 推断,推测(on, upon, about);投机

派生:speculation n. 推测,推断

例句:The doctor speculated that a virus caused the disease. 医生推断是某种病毒引起了这种疾病。

substitute v. 代替,替代 n. 代替品

派生:substitution n. 代替,代替物

例句:When a member is injured, a substitute plays in his place. 球员受伤时,替补球员就代替他的位置。

词组:substitute for 代替,取代


victim n. 受害者,牺牲者

例句:We should not be a victim of materialism. 我们不应该成为物质主义的牺牲品。

词组:fall a victim to 成为……的牺牲品

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