跨考教育

跨考教育

当前位置: 跨考网 > 公共课 > 英语 > 阅读 > 正文

2017考研英语指导阅读中学单词(7)

来源: 跨考教育

2016-05-16 19:28:05

手机考研网

收藏本文

考研英语单词贯穿英语复习的始终,进入强化阶段,考生们依然不能够掉以轻心,但是日日面对单词书,无疑让很多考生心生反感。今天,小编为考生推荐一种新的复习方法,根据阅读记单词,十篇阅读希望能够帮助考生找到边看阅读边记单词的习惯。下面是2017考研英语指导阅读中学单词(7):

2017考研英语指导阅读中学单词(7)

点击进入咨询解答<<<<

Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialization was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalization of scientific activity.

No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exception can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word “amateur” does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialization in the nineteenth century, with itsconsequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

Although the process of professionalization and specialization was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

译文

专业化是随着科学知识不断增长和积累形成的。把学科内容细分成更小的单位,科学家就能不断地掌握信息,并以此为基础进行进一步研究。但是,专业化只是一系列与影响交流过程相关的科学发展结果之一。另一个结果便是科研活动的职业化。

在科学上专业人员与业余科研人员之间并没有明确的分界线:任何规则总存在例外。然而,“业余”这个词的确有这样一个含义,即相关人员接受长期而复杂的专业训练,这给从事科研的业余人员带来了更大的问题。这种趋势在那些特别依赖数学或实验室的学科领域中,自然十分明显。我们可以用英国的地质学发展过程的例子来认识这种趋势。

比较过去一个半世纪英国地质学刊物可以看出,地质学界不仅越来越强调科研的至高无上,而且对什么是可接受的科研论文的界定也不断地变化。因此,19世纪,局部地质学研究本身就是有价值的科学研究;但到了20世纪,只有当这种局部研究涉及并思考了更大范围的地质学问题时,这种局部性的地质学研究才能为专业人员所接受。另一方面,业余科研人员继续以旧有方式从事局部性研究,其总体结果是,业余人员的论文更难进入专业地质学学刊,而学刊审计制度的广泛引入使论文发表难度进一步加大。这一审计制度是在19世纪由全国学刊首先采用的,到了20世纪又被几家地方地质学刊采用。这导致一个自然的结果是,不同的学刊面向不同的主体读者群,要么是专业人员,要么是业余人员。地质科研人员中也发生了相似的分化现象,这使得全国专业地质人员逐渐形成了一两个特定的科研协会,而业余科研人员往往要么呆在地方协会中,要么组成一个不同的全国性协会。

虽然职业化、专业化在19世纪的英国地质界进行得相当深入,然而其全部效应直至20世纪才体现出来。但是,就总体的科学研究而言,19世纪应被视为科研结构发生变化的关键时期。

词汇

Accumulation n. 积压,积累

派生:accumulate v. 积累,积聚 accumulator n. 累加器 accumulative a. 积累的

例句:He is tired of the accumulation of work for a long time. 他很厌倦长时间积压的工作。

amateurs n. 业余爱好者 a. 业余的,非职业的

例句:He is an amateur actor. 他是一名业余演员。

Connotation n. 隐含意义,言外之意

派生:connote v. 含有某种附加意义

例句:A good dictionary will give us the connotation of a word as well as its denotation. 一本好字典不仅要告诉我们一个字的字面意义同时还要告诉我们该字的言外之意。

Consequence n. 结果,后果,影响;重要性

派生:consequent a. 作为结果的consequently ad. 因此,所以

例句:I hope you can consider the consequences of your actions seriously. 我希望你能慎重考虑你的行为会造成的后果。

词组:in consequence 因此,结果;inconsequence of 由于……的缘故

Constitute v. 组成,构成

派生:constituent a. 形成的,组成的 n. 成分,要素 constitution n. 构成,构造,组成(方式),成分;体格,体质;宪法

例句:Automobile injuries constitute the most common cause for blunt chest injury. 汽车撞伤是构成钝性胸部伤的最常见原因。

Crucial a. 决定性的,关键性的;考验的

例句:It is crucial to get this contract for the future of the company. 签立这项合同对公司的前途很重要。

辨析:critical, crucial

critical 指有转折点性质的,关键性的或决定性的,危急的;crucial 对某一问题的解决极其重要的,决定性的。

Distinction n. 区别,明显区别;特征

派生:distinct v. 截然不同的,完全分开的;清晰的 distinctive a. 有特色的,与众不同的

例句:I can not see any distinction between the two cases. 我看不出来这两个案例有什么差别。

词组:draw a distinction 区别开来;make a distinction between 对……加以区别

illustrate v. 举例说明,阐明;图解,加插图

派生:illustration n. 说明,例证;图解

例句:I can cite quite a few instances to illustrate. 我可以举出好几件事来说明。

Integrate v. 使成为一体,结合在一起,使合并

派生:integrated a. 各部分配合好的;综合的,完整的 integration n. 结合,综合

例句:American government has tried its best to integrate in every aspects. 美国政府已尽力在各个方面消除种族之间的隔离。

词组:integrate…with…/integrate…and… 将……和……构成整体;integrate into 融入

反义词:disintegrate

Nevertheless ad. 尽管如此,然而

例句:There was no hope, nevertheless, he never gave up. 尽管没有希望,但是他从未放弃。

Overall a. 综合的,全面的;全部的

例句:An overall investigation should be made before you come to conclusion. 在你做出结论之前应该对事情进行全面调查。

词组:an overall survey 全面的观察;overall situation 全面局势;overall utilization 综合利用;the overall length 全长;the overall costs 总花销

Participation n. 参加

派生:participant n. 参加者,参与者 participate v. (in) 参与,参加;分享,分担

例句:The school asked for the active participation of all the students in the English Contest. 学校号召所有学生都要积极参加英语竞赛。

Pursue v. 追赶,追踪;继续,从事

派生:pursuit n. 追赶,追求;职业,工作

例句:We have to pursue what we consider to be the right course. 我们必须沿着我们认为正确的道路前进。

Reckon v. 计算,认为;估计,判断;指望

例句:We reckon that he is not fit for the job. 我们认为他不适合做这项工作。

词组:reckon on 指望,盼望;reckon with 估计到,考虑到;处理,解决;reckon sb./sth. as/to be 以为,认定

Requirement n. (for) 需要,需要的东西,要求

派生:require v. 需要;要求,命令

例句:What we did should meet your requirement. 我们做的应该满足你的要求。

Response n. 作答,回答;响应

派生:respond v. 作答;响应

例句:My letter brought no response. 我的信还没有答复。

词组:in response to 响应,反应;make no response 不回答

辨析:answer, reply, response

answer 指针对另一行为的回应,因而介词用to;reply 指对他人的陈述或问题给予回答,通常用reply to;response 指对刺激的回应,也指对紧迫或指定问题的回答。

Split v. 裂开,分开

例句:He was there when the split occurred in the Kuomintang-Communist alliance. 国共分裂时他正好在那里。

词组:split into 分裂、分开;split with 与……分手;split the difference 让步,妥协

Whereas conj. 但是,相反

例句:She thought I was telling lies, whereas I was telling the truth. 她想我在说谎话,其实我说的是实话。

相关推荐
复习指导 2017考研公共课复习指导和做题方法汇总 二战考生复习指导与经验谈汇总
考研时间 跨考教育整理—2017年考研时间表 2016考研真题及答案解析
复试分数线 34所自主划线高校历年考研复试分数线 历年考研国家线汇总(跨考教育整理)

如今已进入5月,2017年的考生已经开始了紧张的复习,你是否还在纠结目标、复习无方向、心态没有调整好,那么到底如何进行考研这场大战,并且在这场大战中取得胜利呢?为了帮助各位考生,特在跨考教育上市周年庆时期,推出考研辅导全年集训免费任性送5月20日开营,限前100名哦!

2017考研信息交流群329446765

2017西医综合加油总群 :368229196

2017翻硕考研加油总群: 550552867

2017法硕考研加油总群: 487171541

2017炳哥金融专硕备战群:450692686

2017炳哥经济学备战群:511966668

关注微信:kkkaoyan,找研友、找干货、找名师,百万考研人都在用

会不定时赠送免费课程,供考生参考复习。也可与研友进行交流,共享考研信息与方法。

分享到:

相关推荐

跨考网| 研招网| 考研信息网| 关于我们| 加入我们| 联系我们 | 网站导航

跨考手机考研网:http://m.kuakao.com/ 考研从未如此简单

Copyright@2004-2014 www.kuakao.com All Right Reserived 京 ICP备11041699号-3

版权所有:北京尚学硕博教育咨询有限公司

 

公共课保分班

400-883-2220