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2016-05-16 19:28:05






Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialization was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalization of scientific activity.

No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exception can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word “amateur” does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialization in the nineteenth century, with itsconsequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom.

A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

Although the process of professionalization and specialization was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.







Accumulation n. 积压,积累

派生:accumulate v. 积累,积聚 accumulator n. 累加器 accumulative a. 积累的

例句:He is tired of the accumulation of work for a long time. 他很厌倦长时间积压的工作。

amateurs n. 业余爱好者 a. 业余的,非职业的

例句:He is an amateur actor. 他是一名业余演员。

Connotation n. 隐含意义,言外之意

派生:connote v. 含有某种附加意义

例句:A good dictionary will give us the connotation of a word as well as its denotation. 一本好字典不仅要告诉我们一个字的字面意义同时还要告诉我们该字的言外之意。

Consequence n. 结果,后果,影响;重要性

派生:consequent a. 作为结果的consequently ad. 因此,所以

例句:I hope you can consider the consequences of your actions seriously. 我希望你能慎重考虑你的行为会造成的后果。

词组:in consequence 因此,结果;inconsequence of 由于……的缘故

Constitute v. 组成,构成

派生:constituent a. 形成的,组成的 n. 成分,要素 constitution n. 构成,构造,组成(方式),成分;体格,体质;宪法

例句:Automobile injuries constitute the most common cause for blunt chest injury. 汽车撞伤是构成钝性胸部伤的最常见原因。

Crucial a. 决定性的,关键性的;考验的

例句:It is crucial to get this contract for the future of the company. 签立这项合同对公司的前途很重要。

辨析:critical, crucial

critical 指有转折点性质的,关键性的或决定性的,危急的;crucial 对某一问题的解决极其重要的,决定性的。

Distinction n. 区别,明显区别;特征

派生:distinct v. 截然不同的,完全分开的;清晰的 distinctive a. 有特色的,与众不同的

例句:I can not see any distinction between the two cases. 我看不出来这两个案例有什么差别。

词组:draw a distinction 区别开来;make a distinction between 对……加以区别

illustrate v. 举例说明,阐明;图解,加插图

派生:illustration n. 说明,例证;图解

例句:I can cite quite a few instances to illustrate. 我可以举出好几件事来说明。

Integrate v. 使成为一体,结合在一起,使合并

派生:integrated a. 各部分配合好的;综合的,完整的 integration n. 结合,综合

例句:American government has tried its best to integrate in every aspects. 美国政府已尽力在各个方面消除种族之间的隔离。

词组:integrate…with…/integrate…and… 将……和……构成整体;integrate into 融入


Nevertheless ad. 尽管如此,然而

例句:There was no hope, nevertheless, he never gave up. 尽管没有希望,但是他从未放弃。

Overall a. 综合的,全面的;全部的

例句:An overall investigation should be made before you come to conclusion. 在你做出结论之前应该对事情进行全面调查。

词组:an overall survey 全面的观察;overall situation 全面局势;overall utilization 综合利用;the overall length 全长;the overall costs 总花销

Participation n. 参加

派生:participant n. 参加者,参与者 participate v. (in) 参与,参加;分享,分担

例句:The school asked for the active participation of all the students in the English Contest. 学校号召所有学生都要积极参加英语竞赛。

Pursue v. 追赶,追踪;继续,从事

派生:pursuit n. 追赶,追求;职业,工作

例句:We have to pursue what we consider to be the right course. 我们必须沿着我们认为正确的道路前进。

Reckon v. 计算,认为;估计,判断;指望

例句:We reckon that he is not fit for the job. 我们认为他不适合做这项工作。

词组:reckon on 指望,盼望;reckon with 估计到,考虑到;处理,解决;reckon sb./sth. as/to be 以为,认定

Requirement n. (for) 需要,需要的东西,要求

派生:require v. 需要;要求,命令

例句:What we did should meet your requirement. 我们做的应该满足你的要求。

Response n. 作答,回答;响应

派生:respond v. 作答;响应

例句:My letter brought no response. 我的信还没有答复。

词组:in response to 响应,反应;make no response 不回答

辨析:answer, reply, response

answer 指针对另一行为的回应,因而介词用to;reply 指对他人的陈述或问题给予回答,通常用reply to;response 指对刺激的回应,也指对紧迫或指定问题的回答。

Split v. 裂开,分开

例句:He was there when the split occurred in the Kuomintang-Communist alliance. 国共分裂时他正好在那里。

词组:split into 分裂、分开;split with 与……分手;split the difference 让步,妥协

Whereas conj. 但是,相反

例句:She thought I was telling lies, whereas I was telling the truth. 她想我在说谎话,其实我说的是实话。

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