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2015考研英语语法指导:倒装结构

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2014-04-29 16:13:39

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  倒装结构

  倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前、谓语在后的正常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一部分移到主语之前。倒装是一种修辞手段,目的是为了强调。倒装分为部分倒装和全部倒装,考试多为部分倒装。考生应掌握什么情况下需要倒装。

  1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装

  never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。如:

  Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.

  Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.

  2.以only修饰状语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装

  only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only when, only after, only because。如:

  Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.

  3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装

  often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point,many a time。如:

  So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

  4.以下列副词开头的句子,句子的主谓要全部倒装

  (1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in, up, away, on。如:

  Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

  (2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then。如:

  Now is your turn. There goes the bell.

  (3)有时主语较长,为了使句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,主谓要全部倒装。这种情况多出现在主系表结构中。如:

  Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.

  In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness.

  5.让步从句的倒装

  (1)as引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如:

  Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.

  (2)出现在句型be+主语+其他, come what may中。如:

  While it’s true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.

  The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.

  Come what may, I’ll be on your side.

  6.比较从句的倒装

  as, than引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。如:

  Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.

  Today’s electric cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery does not offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion.

  Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.

  (1)如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根据人称和时态加助动词do。如:

  Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly.

  (2)考生要广义理解“句首”的概念,注意从句的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首。如:

  Suddenly, Gallup’s name was on everyone’s lips; not only was he the prophet of the moment, but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction.

    2015考研英语复习指导:完美解答完形填空

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