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2015考研英语语法指导——时态、语态

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2014-05-07 22:08:21

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  以下是跨考教育为2015年考生备考总结的英语语法要点,时态、语态需要掌握的知识,希望对广大考生有所帮助。

  1.以下几类动词一般不能用于进行时,同样不用于完成进行时:

  (1)表示感知的动词:hear, feel, notice, recognize, see, taste, smell;

  (2)表示意愿、情感的动词:desire, dislike, forgive, hate, like, love, prefer, refuse, want, wish, fear, love, hate;

  (3)表示思考、看法的动词:believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, feel, mean, know, agree, realize, mind, recall, recollect, remember, trust, suppose;

  (4)表示所有、占有的动词:belong to, owe, own, possess, hold(容纳);

  (5)其他动词:cost, appear, concern, contain, consist, deserve, matter, seem。

  如:

  I’d say whenever you are going after something that is belonging to you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal.

  (1997年考研题, belong表示归属,不用于进行式)

  He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open window last night.

  (1990年考研题,see表示结果,不用于进行式)

  2. 不用will/shall表达将来时的形式:

  (1)be going to表示现在的打算和意图;

  (2)arrive, come, drive, go, leave, retire, return, set off, start, take off等表示移位的动词的进行体表示按计划肯定要发生的将来动作;

  (3)be to (do)表示安排、计划、决定、命令或注定要发生的事,如:

  Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage is to be avoided.

  (4)be about to (do)表示将要(做),如:

  Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to pay compliments to his political leaders.

  (5)be on the point /verge of (doing)表示“马上就要”,一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用;

  (6)be, begin, come, depart, get off, go, leave, return, start的一般现在时表示按日历或时刻表要发生的将来动作或事件,如:

  If you want your film to be properly processed, you’ll have to wait and pick it up on Friday, which is the day after tomorrow.

  (画线部分一般不用will be)

  (7)在时间、条件、让步从句中,一般现在时代替将来时,但要注意区别从句的类型,如:

  I don’t know where he will go tomorrow. 我不知道他明天去哪儿。(宾语从句)

  I’ll tell him when you will ring again. 我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

  比较:I’ll tell him when you ring again.你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句)

  (8)在make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时,如:

  See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn’t know the answer to last time.

  (include 不能用will include或其他形式)

  

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