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2016年考研英语基础时态语法解析(5)

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2015-03-02 10:29:25

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2016年考研英语基础时态语法解析

  一、被动语态的用法

  1. 一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词

  Our classroom is cleaned everyday. 我们教室每天都被打扫。

  I am asked to study hard. 我被告知要努力学习。

  Knives are used for cutting things. 刀是用来切东西的。

  2. 一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词

  A new shop was built last year. 去年修了一座新商店。

  Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago. 恐龙蛋被放置了很久很久。

  3. 一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

  A new hospital will be built in our city. 我们城市将要修建一家新医院。

  Many more trees will be planted next year. 明年会种更多的树。

  4. 现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词

  Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→ My bike is being repaired by Tom now. 王叔叔正在修理我的自行车。

  They are planting trees over there. → Trees are being planted over there by them. 他们在那里种植的树木。

  5. 现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词

  This book has been translated into many languages. 这本书被翻译成多种文字。

  Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.

  在许多国家有许多人造卫星被送上了太空。

  6.过去进行时的被动语态构成:was/were + being + 及物动词的过去分词

  The boy was being operated on when his parents hurried to the hospital.

  当他的父母赶到医院的时候这个男孩正在做手术。

  The new road was being made.这条新路正在修筑。

  7.过去完成时的被动语态构成:had + been + 及物动词的过去分词

  The classroom hadn‟t been cleaned before the teacher came. 在老师来之前,教室尚未打扫。

  The tickets had been sold out before I came to the cinema.在门票被销售一空前我赶到了电影院。

  8.将来完成时的被动语态构成:shall/will + have done

  They will have been married for 20 years by then. 届时,他们结婚将满20周年。

  The project will have been completed before May.该项目将在五月前完成。

  9.含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

  Young trees must be watered often. 小树需要经常浇水。

  Your mistakes should be corrected right now. 你应该现在就改正你的错误。

  The door may be locked inside. 这扇门可以反锁。

  Your homework can be handed in tomorrow. 你的家庭作业可以明天交。

  二、主动语态变被动语态

  步骤:

  1. 先找出谓语动词;

  2. 再找出谓语动词后的宾语;

  3. 把宾语用作被动语态中的主语;

  4. 注意人称、时态和数的变化。

  1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week. 布鲁斯每星期写一封信。

  2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.

  李雷今天上午在修理坏的自行车。

  3. He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far. 至今他已写了两部小说。

  4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow. 他们明天将要种植十棵树。

  5. Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now. 露西正在写信。

  6. You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave. 当你离开的时候你必须把门锁上。

  三、注意问题

  1. 不及物动词无被动语态。

  What will happen in 100 years?一百年里会发生什么事?

  The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago. 约65万年前恐龙灭绝。

  2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。

  This pen writes well. 这支钢笔很好写。

  This new book sells well. 这本新书卖的很好。

  3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to ,但变为被动语态时,须加上to。

  make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something

  A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

  一个女孩看到我的钱夹掉了当她经过的时候。

  The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

  这个老板让这小男孩干重活。

  4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。

  He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him. 他给了我一本书。

  He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him. 他给我展示了一张票。

  My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father. 我父亲给我买了一辆新自行车。

  5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。

  We can‟t laugh at him. →He can‟t be laugh at by us. 我们不能嘲笑他。

  He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day. 他每天都收听广播。

  The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.这护士在照顾这个虚弱的男人。

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