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2016年考研英语:常见倒装结构

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2015-04-14 16:17:21

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  2016年考研英语:常见倒装结构

  长难句是考研英语文章中最常见的“拦路虎”, 所以我们总是要先把所谓的三大从句搞清楚,但是当我们把从句够清楚后,发现还是有一些句子会让我们丈二摸不到头脑,现在跨考教育张帅老师就和大家谈谈考研英语长难句中的倒装这一特殊结构。

  其实英语中的“倒装”一般指的是句子中主语和谓语在位置上的颠倒,正常情况下,谓语一定要放在主语的后面,比如:I like watching the romantic movies in my spare time. He is a famous teacher in this university. 这两个句子里,谓语like跟在主语I后面,同样,is跟在he后面。

  但在一些特殊的语法规则下,主谓的位置会发生变化。比如下面这两个句子:

  In the mountain lives the old man.

  Only in the mountain does the old man live.

  显然这两个句子里都存在谓语动词出现在主语old man前的结构,那么这就是所谓的倒装。但是我们也会发现这里有不同,第一个句子倒的是lives;而第二个句子倒的是助动词does,而真正的谓语live依然在主语the old man 的后面。所以第二个句子是倒装吗?那和第一个句子的倒装种类一样吗?

  其实,在英语中最常见的倒装结构从大的方向就两种:全倒装和半倒装,在这里上面的第一个句子就是全倒装,而第二个句子就是所谓的半倒装;共同点都是倒谓语动词,但是倒装的部分有区别。全倒是把整个谓语动词包括它对应的助动词形式全部放在主语前:lives 的谓语动词其实是live (动词本身)+ does(对应的第三人称形式);而半倒装只是把谓语动词对应的助动词倒到主语的前面,而谓语动词本身位置不发生变化,正如上面的Only in the mountain does the old man live.

  我们先要分清动词本身与它对应的形式,如下列举:(以动词watch为例)

  watch--- do

  watched--- did

  watches--- does

  has/have watched--- has/have

  had watched--- had

  can watch --- can

  搞清了所谓的谓语动词以及对应的助动词形式,那么全倒装和半倒装的问题就解决了大半,剩下的问题就是什么时候全倒,什么时候半倒。下面我们把常见的全倒装和半倒装的规则进行一下整理:

  1. 全倒装:

  —— 谓语动词放置在主语之前

  An old man lives in the city center.

  = In the city center lives an old man.

  A temple stands on the mountain.

  = On the mountain stands a temple.

  强调句中的地点,方向的副词或状语时需要全倒装!

  1) up, down, away, in, out, off , under 等置于句首时;

  In came a number of boys and girls talking and laughing.

  一群孩子边说边笑走了进来。

  2) Here,there,now, then, thus, hence 置于句首时而主语不是人称代词时;

  There goes a bus.

  一辆公车从那边开过来。

  2. 半倒装:

  (1)句首出现否定词 never, nor, seldom, little, hardly, scarcely, rarely, few等

  I never trust you.

  = Never do I trust you.

  He seldom believes the information from the Internet.

  = Seldom does he believe the information from the Internet.

  (2)否定词组在句首

  He no longer works for the money, but for the personal development.

  = No longer does he work for the money, but for the personal development.

  常见词组:On no account, at no time, by no means, in no case, under no circumstance, in no way,on no account, on no consideration, no longer, not only等。

  (3) only+状语/状语从句在句首

  We can achieve the goal only in this way.

  = Only in this way can we achieve the goal.

  (a) Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their own.

  (b) Only when the meeting was over was he able to meet his friend.

  (4) so 或so引导的短语放在句首要部分倒装

  He saw the film. So did she.

  - She is a student.

  - So am I.

  He ran so fast that we couldn’t catch up with him.

  = So fast did he run that we couldn’t catch up with him.

  She speaked so loudly that everyone could hear her clearly.

  = So loudly did she speak that everyone could hear her clearly.

  Nonstop waves of immigrants played a role, too — and so did bigger crops of babies as yesterday’s “baby boom” generation reached its child-bearing years.

  (5)让步状语从句的倒装

  Although I am young, I can live by myself.

  = Young as I am, I can live by myself.

  = Young though I am, I can live by myself.

  Although he is a child, he has learned to earn a living.

  = Child as he is, he has learned to earn a living.

  = Child though he is, he has learned to earn a living.

  Although I like you very much, ……

  = Much as I like you,……

  = Though as I like you, ……

  Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysics have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.

  特殊句型

  Hardly …when…

  No sooner…than…

  一……就……

  No sooner(Hardly) had we reached home than (when) it began to rain.

  Hardly had the football match begun when it started snowing.

  No sooner had he arrived at the station than the train began to leave.

  以上就是英语中常见的倒装结构,大家只要把倒装的概念以及规则搞清楚,然后把主语和谓语的位置转化成原来的位置,就可以了。

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