一、非谓语动词( V+ing, V+ed)
Saying is easier than doing.
We get pleasure from loving and being loved.
The beginning student should be given more encouragement.
A balanced diet provides nutrition for your body.
Those living on a mountain live off the mountain.
Children disciplined when they are young will become good citizen.
Hearing the news, they immediately set off for Shanghai.
Seen from the pagoda, the south foot of the Purple Mountain is a sea of trees.
Printed white, the house looks bigger.
Having written an important letter, I litsened to the music for a while.
Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.
An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform.
Creating a “European identity” that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice. (2005-49)
Mary coming back, they discussed it together. (= When Mary came back…)
Health and persistence given, one can do great things. (=If health and persistence are given…)
The moon having risen, they took a walk in the fields. (= When the moon had risen…)
So much time having been spent, the work is only half done. (=Though so much time has been spent…)
But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see very little difference on their report cards.
A，He has one sister who is working in the city.
B，He has one sister, who is working in the city.
C，All the people in the auditorium who had enough of classical music start to leave.
D，All the people in the auditorium, who had enough of classical music, start to leave.
E，The bookstore which sells this book is the largest one in Nanjing.
F，The bookstore where I work is the largest one in Nanjing.
1, Thus, the anthropological concept of “culture”, like the concept of “set” in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.
2, I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic way about moral problems.
3, Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, …
4, It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.
5, This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.
6, Now since the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter, we must be sure that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a “valid” or “fair” comparison.
7, It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invited you to think that animals should be treated either with consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.
8, On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.
9, “It was a really bad move because that’s not my passion,” says Ning, whose dilemma about the job translated, predictable, into a lack of sales.
A: The proposal that he put forward is to be discussed at the meeting.
B: The proposal that we should import more equipment from abroad is to be discussed at the meeting.
1, Part of the fame of Allen’s book is its contention that “circumstances do not make a person; they reveal him.”
2, Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request.
3, The idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.
4, Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought.
5, The common belief of some linguistics that each language is a perfect vehicle for the thoughts of the nation speaking it is in some ways the exact counterpart of the conviction of the Manchester school of economics that supply and demand will regulate everything for the rest.
This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework.
1, He ate what he paid for. (= He ate the food that he paid for.)
2, The question is how we can get the loan. (= The question is something.)
3, He told them who he was and what he had done in the past.
4, In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can be not well defined.
5, The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.
6, When the first draft should be finished and how it should be ameliorated are just two of a great number of difficulties that the fledging newspaper reporter encounters.
7, The most crucial point that you should fully comprehend is what prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect.
8，A Google search can leak between 0.2 and 7.0 grams of CO2, depending on how many attempts are needed to get the “right” answers.
Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlation that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy.
I’ve been waiting for an hour but she still hasn’t come.
He said that he would wait for us at the bus stop.
The concert will begin at half past eight. They will have played half an hour when you arrive.
1，It is painful to read these round about accounts today.
2，It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience ,but this effect is not a part of its original motive.)
3, It is interesting to note that in countries where the national diet contains large quantities of unrefined flour and vegetables, certain diseases are comparatively rare.
4, I believe equally that it is in the interests of the world as a whole that Europe should increasingly unite and speak with a common voice.
1, If he were here this evening, we would play cards.
2, If I had known her address, I would have visited her last week.
3, Were they got married, they would be happy.
4, Had you informed me earlier, I wouldn’t have signed the contract.
5, Coke town was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and the ashes had allowed it.
6, They do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been, had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.
7, If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. (2011)
8, Those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times.
9, This “brain drain” has long bothered policymakers in poor countries. They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities, worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make.
1, Railroads typically charge such “captive” shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business.
2, When they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain’s roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented — and human perception far more complicated — than previously imagined.