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考研英语基础语法

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2015-12-28 16:29:46

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A. 核心语法

一、非谓语动词( V+ing, V+ed)

1, 动名词

(1)作主语和宾语

Saying is easier than doing.

说比做容易。

(2)作介词宾语

We get pleasure from loving and being loved.

我们从爱别人和被别人爱中得到快乐。

2,分词作定语

(1)前置

The beginning student should be given more encouragement.

初学者应多给予鼓励。

A balanced diet provides nutrition for your body.

均衡的食物使你的身体获得营养。

(2)后置

Those living on a mountain live off the mountain.

靠山吃山

Children disciplined when they are young will become good citizen.

小时候受过良好教育的儿童长大会成为好公民。

3,分词作状语

Hearing the news, they immediately set off for Shanghai.

听到这个消息,他们立即出发到上海去了。

Seen from the pagoda, the south foot of the Purple Mountain is a sea of trees.

从这个塔上远眺,紫金山南麓是树的海洋。

Printed white, the house looks bigger.

漆成白色后,这房子像是更大了。

Having written an important letter, I litsened to the music for a while.

写完一封重要的信之后,我听了一会儿音乐。

Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.

持极端观点的人认为,人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,所以对待动物无须考虑道德问题。

An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform.

对于计算机课堂教学,人们在观点上存在着一条无形的界线:有人认为应从学生的就业前景来考虑这一问题,而另一些人认为应从推行彻底的教育改革方面来更加全面地考虑计算机进入教室这一问题。

(区别动名词短语作主语)

Creating a “European identity” that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice. (2005-49)

创造一种能够尊重不同文化与传统的欧洲特色并不是一件很容易的事情,而这些文化传统将会成为维系欧洲大陆的基础结构,这需要一种战略性的选择。

4,独立主格结构

Mary coming back, they discussed it together. (= When Mary came back…)

玛丽回来后,他们一起讨论了那件事。

Health and persistence given, one can do great things. (=If health and persistence are given…)

有健康的身体和顽强的毅力的话,一个人能做出伟大的事情。

The moon having risen, they took a walk in the fields. (= When the moon had risen…)

月亮升起后,他们在田野里散步。

So much time having been spent, the work is only half done. (=Though so much time has been spent…)

虽然花了这么多时间,这项工作才做了一半。

But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see very little difference on their report cards.

但是由于作业在成绩中所占的比例不超过10%,学生很可能少做一半的作业,而在他们的成绩单上也不会有什么差别。

二、定语从句

A,He has one sister who is working in the city.

B,He has one sister, who is working in the city.

C,All the people in the auditorium who had enough of classical music start to leave.

D,All the people in the auditorium, who had enough of classical music, start to leave.

E,The bookstore which sells this book is the largest one in Nanjing.

F,The bookstore where I work is the largest one in Nanjing.

1, Thus, the anthropological concept of “culture”, like the concept of “set” in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.

因此,人类学中的“文化”就象数学中的“集”一样,是一个抽象概念,这种抽象概念使大量的具体研究和认识成为可能。

2, I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic way about moral problems.

我将其定义为这样一个人:他以苏格拉底的方式来思考道德问题,并将此当作人生的主要责任和乐趣。

3, Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, …

而且,人类还有能力改变自己的生存环境,…

4, It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.

这一体系容易忽视并最终消灭很多缺乏商业价值的物种,然而这些物种对于整个生物群落的健康运行是至关重要的。

5, This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.

这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匮乏,高能量消耗这种美国耕作方式很难在农业中继续下去,而这种耕作方式使投入少数农民就可获得高产成为可能。

6, Now since the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter, we must be sure that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a “valid” or “fair” comparison.

现在,既然对智力的评估是比较性的,那么,在对我们的对象进行比较时,所采用的尺度就应当是“有效的”或“公平的”。

7, It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invited you to think that animals should be treated either with consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.

这在一开始就将问题引向极端,它让人们认为应该这样对待动物:要么象对待人类自身那样去关怀,要么完全冷漠无情。

8, On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.

在另一层面上,许多医学界人士承认,关于辅助自杀的争论的升温的部分原因在于病人的绝望情绪,对这些病人来说,现代医学事实上延长了临终前身体的痛苦。

9, “It was a really bad move because that’s not my passion,” says Ning, whose dilemma about the job translated, predictable, into a lack of sales.

宁说:“因为这个工作不是我的兴趣所在,所以这的确是糟糕的一步。”结果可想而知,他的这一矛盾心理导致他的销售业绩不佳。

(同位语从句与定语从句的区别)

A: The proposal that he put forward is to be discussed at the meeting.

他提出的建议将在会上讨论。

B: The proposal that we should import more equipment from abroad is to be discussed at the meeting.

我们应当从国外进口更多设备这个建议将在会上讨论。

1, Part of the fame of Allen’s book is its contention that “circumstances do not make a person; they reveal him.”

爱伦的书之所以出名,部分原因是因为它辩论的观点,即: “环境并未造就人,而是揭示了人的本性。

2, Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request.

网上文化推崇这样一个概念,即在你提出具体的要求之后,信息才会出现在你屏幕上。

3, The idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.

新闻工作者对于法律的理解应当比普通公民更加深刻,这个观点建立在对新闻媒体既定规范和特殊社会责任的理解的基础之上。

4, Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought.

沃尔夫对语言与思维的关系很感兴趣,因此他逐渐形成了这样的观点:一个社会中,语言的结构决定习惯思维的结构。

5, The common belief of some linguistics that each language is a perfect vehicle for the thoughts of the nation speaking it is in some ways the exact counterpart of the conviction of the Manchester school of economics that supply and demand will regulate everything for the rest.

一些语言学家的共同见解是,每一种语言都是使用该语言的民族用以表达思想的完美载体。这一观点在某些方面与曼彻斯特经济学派的观点,即供给与需求会将一切调节至尽善尽美,有异曲同工之处。

判别:

This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework.

这项规定本意是解决来自贫困和混乱家庭的学生在完成作业时可能遇到的困难。

三、名词性从句

1, He ate what he paid for. (= He ate the food that he paid for.)

他吃他买的东西。

2, The question is how we can get the loan. (= The question is something.)

问题是如何获得贷款。

3, He told them who he was and what he had done in the past.

4, In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can be not well defined.

一般来说,当所需测定的性质能够精确定义时,测试最为有效;而当所需测定或预测的对象不能明确定义时,测试效果最差。

5, The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

希腊人认为本语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系,这种观点早在人们意识到语言的千差万别之前就已经在欧洲扎下了根。

6, When the first draft should be finished and how it should be ameliorated are just two of a great number of difficulties that the fledging newspaper reporter encounters.

什么时候该完成初稿,以及该怎样对其进行修改,是这个初出茅庐的新闻记者面临的众多问题中的两个。

7, The most crucial point that you should fully comprehend is what prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect.

关键在于,你应当充分理解是什么使得美国人不能如人们所期望的那样幸福地生活。

8,A Google search can leak between 0.2 and 7.0 grams of CO2, depending on how many attempts are needed to get the “right” answers.

在谷歌上进行一次搜索便会产生0.2到7.0克的二氧化碳,具体数值取决于人们得到“正确”答案所需的查询次数。

Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlation that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy.

目前企业正在研究基因如何相互作用,以寻找它们之间的关联性,从而用于推断疾病的起因或者预测药效。

B. 其它语法现象:

一、重要时态

1,现在完成进行时

I’ve been waiting for an hour but she still hasn’t come.

我已等了一个小时,但她还没有来。

2,过去将来时

He said that he would wait for us at the bus stop.

他说他要在车站等我们的。

3,将来完成时

The concert will begin at half past eight. They will have played half an hour when you arrive.

音乐会将在8点半开始。你达到时,他们就将已演奏半小时了。

二、 “it”作形式主语

1,It is painful to read these round about accounts today.

现在来看这些拐弯抹角的理由是令人心痛的。

2,It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience ,but this effect is not a part of its original motive.)

尽管人们可以这样说,对任何一个社会制度价值的衡量就是其在增长和丰富经验方面所产生的影响,但是这种影响并不是其最初动机的一部分。

3, It is interesting to note that in countries where the national diet contains large quantities of unrefined flour and vegetables, certain diseases are comparatively rare.

一个值得注意的有趣现象是,在那些以粗面粉和蔬菜为主食的国家里,某些疾病相对少些。

4, I believe equally that it is in the interests of the world as a whole that Europe should increasingly unite and speak with a common voice.

我同样认为欧洲应该日益团结起来,发出共同的声音,这是符合全世界的利益的。

三、 虚拟语气

1, If he were here this evening, we would play cards.

如果他今晚在这里的话,我们就玩牌。

2, If I had known her address, I would have visited her last week.

上周如果我知道她的地址的话,我就去拜访她了。

3, Were they got married, they would be happy.

要是他们结婚的话,他们会幸福的。

4, Had you informed me earlier, I wouldn’t have signed the contract.

要是你早些告诉我的话,我是不会签那份合同的。

5, Coke town was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and the ashes had allowed it.

科克镇以前是由红色的砖建成的,确切点说,要不是由于烟雾和灰尘的话,它本应是红色的。

6, They do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been, had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.

他们不能说明一个物质条件差的年轻人,如果在较好的环境下成长的话,会有多大才干。

7, If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. (2011)

如果环境总是能够决定人的生活和前景,那么人性就不曾进步过。

8, Those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times.

那些名牌大学的毕业生能够很快地达到良好经济时期他们本该拥有的地位。

9, This “brain drain” has long bothered policymakers in poor countries. They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities, worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make.

人才流失问题一直困扰着贫困国家的决策者们。他们担心这会对本国的经济造成损害,造成国家急需的技术人员的流失,这些人本可以任教于国内的大学,也可以在国内的医院工作,或者是构思出更加优越的产品供国内工厂去生产。

四、比较

1, Railroads typically charge such “captive” shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business.

通常,铁路公司对这些“受制”客户的收费要比存在另一家铁路公司竞争时高出20%至30%。

2, When they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain’s roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented — and human perception far more complicated — than previously imagined.

在试图模仿人类思维时,研究人员发现,人类大脑中大约有1000亿个神经细胞,比以前所认为的要更具天赋,人类的感知过程也更复杂。

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