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2015考研英语真题英语一真题完整版(文字版)

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Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Though not biologically related, friends are as “related” as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_.

  The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_.

  While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, “Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.”

  The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_”functional Kinship” of being friends with_(14)_!

  One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor.

  The findings do not simply explain people’s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

  1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what

  2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised

  3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by

  4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected

  5. [A] tests [B] objects [C]samples [D] examples

  6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible

  7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know

  8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass

  9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

  10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps

  11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like

  12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit

  13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with

  14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits

  15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier

  16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express

  17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive

  18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency

  19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic

  20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell

Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don’t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.” But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?

  The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.

  It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs’ continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

  Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today – embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

  The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

  While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

  It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

  21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

  [A] used turn enjoy high public support

  [B] was unpopular among European royals

  [C] cased his relationship with his rivals

  [D]ended his reign in embarrassment

  22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly

  [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

  [B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

  [C] to give voter more public figures to look up to

  [D]due to their everlasting political embodiment

  23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

  [A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth

  [B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

  [C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families

  [D]The nobility’s adherence to their privileges

  24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

  [A] takes a rough line on political issues

  [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised

  [C] takes republicans as his potential allies

  [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

  25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

  [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

  [B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

  [C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

  [D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

TEXT 2

  Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Cpurt will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

  California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

  The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

  They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or porcketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history ,financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing.” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

  But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

  26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

  [A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant.

  [B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized.

  [C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

  [D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

  27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

  [A] tolerance.

  [B] indifference.

  [C] disapproval.

  [D] cautiousness.

  28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable to

  [A] getting into one’s residence.

  [B] handing one’s historical records.

  [C] scanning one’s correspondences.

  [D] going through one’s wallet.

  29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

  [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

  [B] the court is giving police less room for action.

  [C] phones are used to store sensitive information.

  [D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected.

  30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

  (A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

  (B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

  (C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.

  (D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.

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