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2016考研英语一真题及答案解析(跨考版)

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  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1__those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__ a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3__the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may take the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. __4__, a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5__ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.

  The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Par--ts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting,__9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists, and __10__a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__. Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife's parents and may__12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.

  Divorce is legal and easy to __14__, but not common. Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. The divorced male doesn't have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__the woman must wait ten months.

  1. A. by way of B. with regard to C. on behalf of D. as well as

  2. A. decide on B. provide for C. compete with D. adapt to

  3. A. close B. arrange C. renew D. postpone

  4. A. In theory B. Above all C. In time D. For example

  5. A. Unless B. Less C. After D. Although

  6. A. into B. within C. from D. through

  7. A. or B. since C. but D. so

  8. A. test B. copy C. recite D. create

  9. A. folding B. piling C. wrapping D. tying

  10. A. passing B. lighting C. hiding D. serving

  11. A. association B. meeting C. collection D. union

  12. A. deal B. part C. grow D. live

  13. A. whereas B. until C. for D. if

  14. A. avoid B. follow C. challenge D. obtain

  15. A. isolated B. persuaded C. viewed D. exposed

  16. A. wherever B. whatever C. whenever D. however

  17. A. changed B. brought C. shaped D. pushed

  18. A. invested B. divided C. donated D. withdrawn

  19. A. warms B. clears C. shows D. breaks

  20. A. while B. so that C. once D. in that

  1. [标准答案] [D]as well as

  [考点分析] 本题考察逻辑关系

  [选项分析] 因为考察逻辑关系,所以需要我们先对填空前后的原文信息做定位分析:文章身处大环境not only…..but also之中,这是一个明显的并列关系,表示“不仅……而且……”该空与前一句“his parents and his friends”也是并列关系,表示“与他本人以及伴侣的父母朋友相关” 所以答案只能是D. as well as.

  A. by way of通过 B. with regard to 关于 C. on behalf of 代表

  2. [标准答案] [A] decide on

  [考点分析] 上下文语义

  [选项分析] 根据该句的主语a young man与宾语a likely spouse的关系,答案只能是A. decide on 决定。表示自己决定自己的对象。B. provide for 为……提供准备 C. compete with与……竞争 D. adapt to适用

  3. [标准答案] [B]arrange

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] 该句意思为,他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母_____相关事务。四个选项中,A. close 关闭 C renew 更新;恢复 D postpone“推迟”,语义不正确,只有B arrange安排是符合语境。

  4. [标准答案] [A]In theory

  [考点分析] 上下文语义

  [选项分析]逻辑判断题。主要是看前后两句的含义,前面是说“他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母安排相关事务,或者几乎不参与,完全让父母选择自己的对象。” 空格后面说“女方可以拒绝她父母所选择的对象。”这两句之间没有举例说明的关系,且有一个may,更证明A. In theory的正确性。而其他选项 B. Above all最重要的是, C. In time 准时 D. For example举例,均不符合题意。

  5. [标准答案] [C]After

  [考点分析] 上下文语义

  [选项分析]根据下文“______a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other……”知道,只有对象选择好后,父母才会去调查研究对方的背景。所以只有after才对。其他选项A. Unless 除非,否则 B. Lest 以免,唯恐 D. Although 尽管 都不符合题意。

  6.[标准答案] [A]into

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及介词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 这里主要是看marry与相关介词的固定搭配。这里marry into就是指嫁到,而其他选项均没有这层含义。

  7. [标准答案] [C]but

  [考点分析] 逻辑关系题

  [选项分析]根据上文,说传统的婚礼时间跨度很长,但是到了1980s, 婚礼只持续一天半。所以与前文发生转变。因此要选择but转折关系。

  8. [标准答案] [C]recite

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析]空格处需要填一个动词,和后面的prayers of blessing所搭配,C选项recite 为背诵的意思,与所给短语搭配最为合理,译为“为祈祷者做祈福”。

  9. [标准答案] [D]tying

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 本题需要根据上下文语义分析,空格处需要搭配后文“棉花线头”,纵观四个选项[A]折叠

  [B]堆积 [C]包裹 [D]系上,根据选项含义,只有D和后文的“棉花线头”搭配最为合理。

  10.[标准答案] [A]passing

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 本题根据选项[A]传递[B]点亮 [C]隐藏 [D]服务,原文空格需要填写一个动词与后文“around a circle”来搭配,译为“将蜡烛传一圈”,故[A]传递为正确选项。

  11.[标准答案] [D]union

  [考点分析] 名词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 本题根据选项[A]协会,社团[B]会议,会面 [C]集合 [D]结合。本句语义为“这些受尊敬的夫妻祈祷…”根据语境,结婚是一种夫妻二人的结合,因此,选项[D]结合更符合语境。

  12. [标准答案] [D]live

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 本题比较简单。根据语义“根据传统,新婚夫妇要搬到妻子父母家,与父母____一年”根据语境,应为[D]居住为最佳答案。

  13.[标准答案] [B]until

  [考点分析] 时间逻辑关系

  [选项分析] 根据原文,“_____他们在附近建造一栋新房子” [A]然而[B]直到 [C]为 [D]如果 结合语境,[B]直到最符合原文语境,搭配最为合理。

  14.[标准答案] [D]obtain

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__, but not common.该句句意为离婚是合法的,且相对容易____. A.avoid 避免B.follow 跟随C.chanllenge挑战,质疑D.obtain获得。这里出现and,所以对于离婚这件事不可能是避免或是挑战,但是跟随和离婚之间语义不符,但是获得离婚(的批准)是可以的。选D.

  15. [标准答案] [D] viewed

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval.离婚的人…一些不赞同。在段首,已经注明离婚是合法的且相对容易得到批准,但是不常见。这说明离婚在现实中肯定是不太受到人们的欢迎的。而接下来这句就说离婚的人…一些不赞同。再看选项:A.isolated孤立 B.persuaded劝说C.viewed看做 D. exposed接触,受到…的影响 C选项固定搭配被认为,放进。

  16. [标准答案] [B]whatever

  [考点分析] 语法

  [选项分析Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, 17个空对应的都是动词,所以该句意思为:夫妇双方保有…财产,这个财产是他或她…(动词)进婚姻的。 结合选项A whenever“无论何地;任何(地方)=any place where(定从)”。B whatever“无论什么;任何(东西)=anything that/any+N that”。C whenever无论何时;任何(时间=any time when)D however 无论如何;无论多么 。根据语义,这里应该不是让步的关系,而且填的这个词还要能修饰property。因此,选择B =retains any property that he or she ….

  17. [标准答案] [B]brought

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析

  [选项分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage,结合选项A changed“改变”。B brought “带来”。C shaped“形成” D pushed“推,逼迫”。结合语境只有B符合,把财产带入婚姻。

  18. [标准答案] [B]divided

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析

  [选项分析] …and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally.结合选项A invested投资.[B]divided平分 [C] donated 捐赠[D]withdrawn撤出,提取。根据语义应该是共同财产被(夫妻双方)平分。

  19. [标准答案] [C]shows

  [考点分析] 动词固定搭配

  [选项分析] Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. 该句语义为离过婚的人或许会再婚,但是性别偏见…。结合选项A. warm(up)加热 B.clear(up) 变晴C.show (up) 显现D.break(up)分裂,分开;,显然C是正确选项。

  20. [标准答案] [A]while

  [选项分析] 上下文语义

  [考点分析] 很明显的两类人的对比比较关系。只能选择while.

  【真题翻译】在柬埔寨,伴侣的选择对于年轻男性来说是一个复杂的问题。这不仅与他本人以及未来伴侣的父母朋友相关,而且与媒婆也有着千丝万缕的关系。他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母安排相关事务,或者几乎不参与,完全让父母选择自己的对象。理论上来说,女方可以拒绝她父母所选择的对象。在选好自己的对象后,每个家庭都能会去调查对方家庭来确保他们的孩子嫁到好人家。

  传统的婚礼是一段漫长,多姿多彩的过程。从前会持续三天,但是到了20世纪80年代,一般会持续一天半。佛教徒通常会做简短诵经,并为新人祈福。仪式通常包括剪发,在新郎新娘的胳膊上系上浸满圣水的棉绳,在幸福的、受人尊敬的夫妇中传递蜡烛来祈祷新人的结合。通常情况下,新婚夫妇会到妻子父母家里住一年,直到他们在附近建一栋新房子为止。

  离婚是合法的,而且很容易获得批准,但是在实际中这种情况并不常见。离过婚的男女会受到一些人的诟病。夫妇双方在离婚后可保有他或她婚前带来的财产,而且可平分婚后共同取得的财产。离过婚的人或许会再婚,但是性别偏见还是很明显。比如,离过婚的男性再婚前不需要一段等待期而女性则需要等待十个月。

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.

  The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

  Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death - as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

  The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.

  The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep — and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

  The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

  In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.’ The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week, which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.

  Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

  21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?

  [A] Physical beauty would be redefined.

  [B] New runways would be constructed.

  [C] Websites about dieting would thrive.

  [D] The fashion industry would decline.

  22. The phrase “impinging on” (Line 2, Para 2) is closest in meaning to____

  [A] heightening the value of.

  [B] indicating the state of.

  [C] losing faith in.

  [D] doing harm to.

  23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?

  [A] The French measures have already failed.

  [B] New standards are being set in Denmark.

  [C] Model are no longer under peer pressure.

  [D] Its inherent problems are getting worse.

  24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for ____

  [A] setting a high age threshold for models.

  [B] caring too much about models’ character.

  [C] showing little concern for health factors.

  [D] pursuing perfect physical conditions.

  25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?

  [A] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry

  [B] Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty

  [C] A Dilemma for the Starving Models in France

  [D] A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

  21 答案 A Physical beauty would be redefined

  解析:这是一道细节题,根据France定位到第一段第一句,主干成分为France has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty。此外第二段第二句They suggest beauty should not be define by looks…故而A physical beauty would be redefined为同义替换,即为正确答案。

  22 答案 D doing harm to

  解析:此题为词义题。定位到第二段第二句They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 根据end up 可以看出beauty should not be defined by looks 和that end up impinging on health为顺承关系,所以“改变人们对美不仅仅是外表的定义”可以结束对健康的危害。故而可以推知doing harm to是正确答案。

  23 答案 B New Standards are being set in Denmark

  解析:此题是正误判断题。根据第五段第二句话 In Denmark,…it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion…可知B选项 New standards are being set in Denmark是其同义替换。

  24 答案 C showing little concern for health factors

  解析:细节题。一个设计师很可能因为什么原因被CFW拒绝,根据关键词可回到文中定位至倒数第二段,首句说丹麦的时尚界就有关模特的年龄,健康及其他特性的内容达成一致意见,切一项新法案也明确规定,他们已经意识到时尚界对于人们尤其是年轻人的身体健康所带来的影响,并且该对此负责,接着下一句就说,这一法规的执行方式就是拒绝一些设计师,因为可以推断设计师很可能因为不考虑身体健康因素而被CFW拒绝。

  25 答案 D A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

  解析:主旨题。本文从首段就开始阐述法国的观点,即时尚界已经失去了定义女性身体之美的权利,且议会也禁止网站通过宣传过度节食来强调过度消瘦。二段继续说明美丽不能只看外表更不能以牺牲健康为代价。三段说女性不该让他人来评判自己的美丽。以及后面的段落中也一直在不断说明一点,即健康很重要,不能只看外表。所以文章最佳标题应该是D,对时尚界完美身材的质疑。

  Text 2

  For the first time in history, more people live in towns than in the county. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate “the countryside” alongside the royal firmly, Shakespeare and the National Health Service (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.

  A century ago Octavia Hill launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever.” It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience “a refreshing air.” Hill’s pressure later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it. It needs constant guardianship.

  At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives’ planning reform explicitly gives rural development priori over conservation, even authorizing “off-plan” building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance, has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local Conservative parties.

  The sensible place to build new houses, factories and offices is where people are.in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone, no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.

  The idea that “housing crisis” equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more house but, as always, where to put them. Under lobby pressure, George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against. high streets. This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have growl and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban conservation areas. Why ruin rural ones?

  Development should be planned .not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowded country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. there is no doubt of the alternative - the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal Spain or Ireland avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite left and right of the political spectrum.

  26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside

  [A] didn’t start till the Shakespearean age.

  [B] has brought much benefit to the NHS.

  [C] is fully backed by the royal family.

  [D] is not well reflected in politics.

  27. According to Paragraph 2, the achievements of the National Trust are now being

  [A] gradually destroyed.

  [B] effectively reinforced..

  [C] properly protected.

  [D] largely overshadowed.

  28. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3?

  [A] Labour is under attack for opposing development

  [B] The Conservatives may abandon “off-plan” building.

  [C] The Liberal Democrats are losing political influence.

  [D] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation.

  29. The author holds that George Osborne’s preference

  [A] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas.

  [B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas.

  [C] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis.

  [D] highlights his firm stand i against lobby Pressure.

  30. In the last paragraph, the author shows his appreciation of

  [A] the size of population in Britain.

  [B] the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain.

  [C] the town-and-country planning in Britain.

  [D]the political life in today’s Britain.

  26 答案 D is not well reflected in politics

  解析:细节题。精读题干,划出关键词。根据题干回到原文精确定位到首段最后一句,该句中的polls民意调查对应题干中的public sentiment,定位答案处为“this has limited political support”,意思为这在政治支持方面是有限的。与D选项“在政治上没有得到很好的反响”为同义替换。

  27 答案 D largely overshadowed

  解析:细节题。根据题干,题干中出现大写the National Trust,定位到第二段首句the National Trust该句。二段首句只是对Hill的该项目做介绍,需向后看影响。往下可以读到Hill’s pressure这句,写到“Hill的项目创造出国家公园和绿地。他们不再制造乡村了,而且每年钢筋混凝土消耗的乡村越来越多。乡村需要持久的保护”。对应选项,该项目的成就很大程度上被夺取了光辉。

  28 答案 A Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation

  解析:推断题。题干问的是从第三段能推出什么,考察的是相应段落的段落中心。观察选项不难发现,选项中都是大写的Ukip,The Conservatives,The Liberal Democrats,Labour。可根据选项中的大写回段落中寻找,发现Ukip所在的定位句为Only的倒装强调句(倒装强调句往往为答案所在处)。该句子意思是:只有Ukip意识到其机会,并支持这些人。和选项A对应一下,Ukip可能能从其对农村保护的支持中获得好处,是同义替换。

  29 答案 B Shows his disregard for the character of rural areas

  解析:细节题 问的是作者对于奥斯本的偏好(观点)的具体看法。根据关键词奥斯本定位至第五段,因为问的是作者对于奥斯本观点的看法,所以只需要看在奥斯本的观点之后作者的表达内容,第五段倒数两句话就是作者表达自己观点的地方,即“我们没有破坏城市中受到保护的地方”,“你们为什么要破坏乡村的呢?”这就说明奥斯本一方的观点是要破坏乡村环境。所以可得出答案是奥斯本想法表明了他对于乡村人们的忽视。

  30 答案 C the-town-and-country planning in Britain

  解析:根据题干定位到最后一段,问的是作者欣赏赞同什么,作者的观点即是文章末段的段落中心,可定位到末段末句。末句指出,避免this会将左右党派联系起来,this代词指代指代上句中所提到的内容。Should即作者赞同的地方,也就是作者赞同的是城乡结合。

  TEXT3

  “There is on and only one social responsibility of business,” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize-winning economist, “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Friedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’ money, things may not be absolutely clear-cut. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies-at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.

  The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.

  Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. Al recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect.

  The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties,. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firm’s political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.

  In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern , such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving byabout20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials”, says one researcher.

  Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. But at least they have demonstrated that when companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them less costly punishment.

  31.The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with

  【A】tolerance.

  【B】skepticism.

  【C】uncertainty.

  【D】approval.

  32.According to Paragraph 2,CSR helps a company by

  【A】winning trust from consumers.

  【B】guarding it against malpractices.

  【C】protecting it from being defamed.

  【D】raising the quality of its products.

  33. The expression “more lenient ”(line 2,para.4)is closest in meaning to

  【A】more effective

  【B】less controversial

  【C】less severe

  【D】more lasting

  34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company’s CSR regard

  【A】has an impact on their decision

  【B】comes across as reliable evidence

  【C】increases the chance of being penalized

  【D】constitutes part of the investigation

  35.Which of the following is true of CSR, according to the last paragraph?

  【A】 Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked.

  【B】 The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown.

  【C】 Companies’ financial capacity for it has been overestimated.

  【D】 It has brought much benefit to the banking industry.

  31 答案 B Skepticism

  解析:作者观点态度题。题干问的是作者对有关CSR方面Milton Friedman的说法是什么态度。根据大写Milton Friedman这个人定位到定位到首段首句。注意题干问的是作者的看法,因此定位到后一句but转折处。转折处的主题句式“things may not absolutely clear-cut”,作者持的是否定态度,选择答案B。C选项是作者态度不明确,不能选择。

  32 答案 A winning trust from consumers

  解析:根据题干找到第二段.根据第二段内容,CSR could add value to their business in three ways. 从而定位下面三点。First后面出现了high quality,但是它是在从句中,从句修饰"signal",而本句谓语动词是take,与D中 raising 并不是同义词,故排除。Second,和third 都与消费者购买心态有关,和A选项 winning trust from consumers 相对应。而B,C选项的malpractices和defamed在原文中并未出现,且没有同义词,故排除。

  33 答案 C less severe

  解析:根据题干找到第四段对应处。可见题干的 more lenient 是作为修饰 penalties(惩罚) 的,故推测本句在讨论 CSR 和 penalties 有什么联系。而本段与惩罚相关的词只有最后一个词 fines(罚金),修饰它的形容词是lower, 故可推测 more lenient 与降低惩罚有关,只有C选项满足。

  34 答案 A has an impact on their decision

  解析:题干中问的是 CSR record 与 prosecutors evaluate a case 的关系,根据题干内容到对应点:第五段第一句。本句说,...they do seem to be influenced by a company's recore in CSR.这里的 be influenced 与A选项 has an impact 对应,故选A. 而B选项中的 reliable evidence, C 选项中的 the chance of being penalized 在原文中没有体现。D选项中的 investigation 与题干中的 When prosecutors evaluate a case 明显对应不上,故不予考虑。

  35 答案 B The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown

  解析:该题是一道判断题,题干问的是有关CSR哪个是对的。先根据CSR回到最后一段,定位到末段首句。首句提到“研究人员承认到其研究没有回答如下问题:公司应该在CSR方面花费多少钱”。选项B的意思是公司在其方面的花费是未知的,属于原文的同义替换。

  Text 4

  There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. “Sometime in the future”, the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.

  Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper — printing presses, delivery trucks — isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print away. And though print ad sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining.

  Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Joah Peretti.

  Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about doing it the right way.” Fighting out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense of them,” he said, “but if you discontinue it, you’re going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”

  Sometimes that’s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example seen as a blunder,” he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”

  The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. “So if you’re overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,”Peretti said. “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.”In other words, if you’re going to make a print product ,make it for the people who are already obsessed with it. Which way be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs $500 a year — more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription.

  “It’s a really hard thing to do and it’s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn’t have a legacy business,”Peretti remarked. “But we’re going to have questions like that where we have things we’re doing that don’t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it’s better to be more aggressive than less aggressive. ”

  36.The New York Times is considering ending its print edition partly due to

  [A]the pressure from its investors.

  [B]the complaints from its readers.

  [C]the high cost of operation.

  [D]the increasing online ad sales.

  37. Peretti suggests that, in face of the present situation, the Times should

  [A]make strategic adjustments

  [B]end the print edition for good.

  [C]seek new sources of readership.

  [D]aim for efficient management.

  38. It can be inferred form Paragraphs 5 and 6 that a “legacy product”

  [A]will have the cost of printing reduced.

  [B]is meant for the most loyal customers.

  [C]helps restore the glory of former times.

  [D]expands the popularity of the paper.

  39. Peretti believes that, in a changing world,

  [A]traditional luxuries can stay unaffected.

  [B]aggressiveness better meets challenges.

  [C]cautiousness facilitates problem-solving.

  [D]legacy businesses are becoming outdated.

  40. Which of the following would be the best title of the text?

  [A]Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good.

  [B]Keep Your Newspapers Forever in Fashion.

  [C]Cherish the Newspaper Still in Your Hand.

  [D]Shift to Online Newspapers All at Once.

  36 答案 C the high cost of operation

  解析:因果细节题,问的是纽约时报考虑停止纸质版新闻印刷出版的原因是什么。文章首段首句即是此内容的同义表达,二段解释具体原因,二段二句内容 The infrastructure isn't just expensive; it's excessive at a time when online-only competitors don't have the same set of financial constraints.意思是维持纸质印刷的基础设施建设不仅仅是贵,是相当贵, 而他们的竞争对手却没有这样的经济上的限制。

  37 答案 A make strategic adjustments

  解析:细节题,问的是面对目前的形势,Peretti建议时代杂志怎么做,根据关键词Peretti回文定位至第四段,首句内容是Peretti说时代杂志不该浪费时间去想着如何停止纸质印刷,而应该找到一种正确的方法去解决这件事。接着二句往后在具体说明该如何正确解决目前的问题。由此推出答案是A 做出策略上的调整。

  38 答案 B is meant for the most loyal customers

  解析:推断题与词汇题的结合,要根据上下文来做出选择。首先定位在第五段最后一句:I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product. 不仅要提高价格还要将它变为一种可以传承的产物。单单这一句不足以做出选择。需要继续往下看在第六段中有没有对于这个词的解释之类的。第六段开头提到了他认为most consumer 依旧坚持去相信他们认为好的东西,喜欢的,相信的东西。如果可以每年增加一些比例,那么依旧是可以创收的。长篇大段的叙述可以让大家明白这个词一定跟consumer有关。最为关键的是:紧接着出现了 in other world, 重述上文,不过却简洁的总结了前文。如果我们要做这些print product, 那就选择那些已经痴迷于他们的人吧。(那么对于他们来讲就是一件可以传承的东西了,以前喜欢,会依旧喜欢下去)。所以这句为做题的关键,对应同义替换,选择B。

  A选项中的降低成本没有在文中相应位置涉及到。 C重建以往的关荣,与消费者关系不大 D扩大受欢迎程度,范围过大。

  39 答案 B aggressiveness better meets challenges

  解析:观点态度题。偏细节题。定位Peretti在文中的观点,首次出现在第三段 overhead…but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake.并且一直贯穿于下文。我们首先从选项来看。A 中…can stay unaffected 过于绝对,不选。D 选项中legacy business 不是文中的讨论话题,所以可以直接排除。而C选项中谨慎可以促进问题的解决,在perreti的观点中根本没有体现,相反他建议要有所改变,并且要找对方式,言下之意就是大胆去面对挑战。所以最终确定是B。

  40 答案 A Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good

  解析:主旨题。出现在最后一道题目中,全文共有7段,根据上面的细节题目,大致可以确定本文的中心词为“print newspaper”B,C 两个选项中的newspaper 都属于范围过大,是主旨题的典型错误选项,而D选项中出现的online newspaper 只是文中print newspaper时提到的一个面临的 一个挑战,不足以引领全文,并且all at once, 是“立刻,马上”之意,与原文的观点也有出入,最终确定选A。

  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A]Create a new image of yourself

  [B]Decide if the time is right

  [C]Have confidence in yourself

  [D]Understand the context

  [E]Work with professionals

  [F]Know your goals

  [G]Make it efficient

  No matter how formal or informa the work environment,the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in first impressions. According to research from Princeton University,people assess your competence,trustworthiness,and likeability in just a tenth of a second,solely based on the way you look.

  The difference between today’s workplace and the“dress for success” era is that the range of options is so much broader. Norms have evolved and fragmented. In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in others not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials, it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing.

  So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what’s the best way to pull off one that enhance our goals? Here are some tips;

  41.

  As an executive coach, I’ve seen image upgrades be particularly helpful during transitions---when looking for a new job, stepping into a new or more public role, or changing work environments. If you’re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. If you’re not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals. Look for cues about how others perceive you.Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK.

  42. Get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more“SoHo”.(It’s OK to use characterizations like that.)

  43.

  Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What converys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you understand the cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.

  44.

  Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like J.Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It’s not as expensive as you might think.

  45.

  The point of a style upgrade isn’t to become more vain or to spend more time passing over what to wear. Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. Pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to options. Buy all your clothes once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time.

  41. B Decide if the time is right

  解析:此段第一句话主句里面说“在过渡的阶段提升自我形象尤其有用”。第二句和第三、四句分别展开说明,第二句表明:如果你处在变动的时期或者感觉需要变动,那么可能这可能是一个好的时机。 相反,第三、四句话表示:如果不确定的话,就需要得到别人的反馈了。也许无需提升。故整段的意思是说要先确定是否现在是提升自我形象的正确时机。故答案为C选项。

  42. F Know your goals

  解析:此段中心句即第一句话,标明“要清楚你想要的结果或影响”。其实就是你想要的目标。紧接着开始解释,提到比如,你是否想要更新你的形象?那么,对于一个人来讲,这个目标可能是要被认真对待或者要加强专业的形象。对于其他人,这个目标可能是要被看作可以触摸到的,或者是现代的,或者是时尚的。对于那些要从金融转到广告的,他们可能得看起来更“SOHO”.所以,整段都在讲目标。而选项F中的”goal”形成复现。故为答案。

  43. D Understand the context

  解析:复现原则,文章多次重复environment, understand the context 就是要理解你的工作处境。

  44. E Work with professionals

  解析:复现原则,文章多次重复professional, work with,就是要与专业人士一起工作。

  45. G Make it efficient

  解析:此段第二句句首出现instead, 故为转折句。所以从此句获得中心内容。该句讲的是“最好是将形象升级用做减少做决定的机会。”紧接着提到“选取一套标准的工作服或几个其他的选择。把衣服一下子都买了,而不是一个人购买,或者一次只买一件”。这些提到的都是要有效率。故选G。

  Part C

  Translation

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration -one of the great folk wanderings of history-swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.

  47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American.

  49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on meager rations. Many of the ships were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes tempests blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought interminable delay.

  To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief. Said one chronicler, "The air at twelve leagues' distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden." The colonists' first glimpse of the new land was a vista of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.

  文章来源于An Outline of American History,《美国历史纲要》,是一本历史学方面的专著。

  46 We don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone.

  【句子结构】分号连接的两个并列句,第一个并列句主干是 We don’t have to learn ,how引导宾语从句做learn的宾语,第二个并列句主干是it is built into us in the same way,that引导定语从句修饰先行词way,that定语从句中主干是our bodies know,how引导宾语从句做know的宾语。

  【参考译文】我们无需刻意去了解学习才能让心理更健康,它正如我们的身体知道怎样让伤口愈合和修复骨折一样,是根植于我们体内的/是我们与生俱来的能力。

  47 Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.

  【句子结构】分号连接的两个并列句, 第一个并列句主谓结构,很简单,第二个并列句中,like the sun behind a cloud是状语,but 连接两个并列分句,包括短语be hidden from 和be capable of. 涉及被动语态的翻译方法。

  【参考译文】我们的心理健康并不是真的消失不见,就像云朵背后的太阳,它也许暂时被遮挡,但是它也可以在瞬间重焕光芒。

  48 Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are.

  【句子结构】句子主干是 Mental health allows us to view others, 三个并列with 引导的介词短语做状语,前两个with引导的状语中各包含一个if引导的条件状从,最后一个with状语中包含一个no matter 引导的让步状语。

  【参考译文】 心理健康使我们在他人遇到麻烦时给予同情,在他人痛苦时心存善意,而且无论对方是谁都会给予无条件的关爱。

  49、【参考译文】尽管拥有健康的心智是我们生活中的万能药,但它并不稀奇,你会发现在你难以做决定时,它一直在指引着你。

  【解析】本题有一个由although引导的让步状语从句,as引导的时间状语从句,以及that引导的宾语从句构成。此处“mental health”若是翻译成心理健康与下文连接,则不符合中文表达习惯,又因mental本身与智力相关,所以将其翻译成“健康的心智”;此外“perfectly ordinary”可以正译,译为“非常普遍”,本译文采取正话反说的方式,译为“并不稀奇”。再次,“difficult decisions”若翻译为困难的决定,不符合中文的表达方式,所以将decision,名词译为动词“做决定”。

  50. As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us slow down to the moment and live life happily.

  【参考译文】你会慢慢理解到,健康的心智会一直存在,坚信这一点,此刻我们就可以放慢生活节奏,快乐的生活。

  【解析】本题由as 引导的时间状语从句,that引导的宾语从句组成,并且考察代词“it”。“see”在此时了解而不是看到的意思,意思和knowing一致,随意合并翻译;“available”本意“可得到的”,句中意译为“一直存在”。

  Section III Writing

  Part A

  Directions:

  Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.

  You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET.

  Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead.

  Do not write the address .(10 points)

  【范文】

  Notice

  August 20, 2015

  To ensure students from overseas to be acquainted with the service of library in Beijing University, we write this notice to inform you of some relevant information about our library.

  To begin with, our library provides a large amount of books and materials covering not only most majors and subjects, but also many extra-curricular reading materials, thus satisfying all your reading requirements. Furthermore, the library opens during the week time, each day from 9:00am to10:00pm. Last but not least, only students enrolled in this university and with a special Library Card are allowed to enter our library.

  Anyone interested in studying or reading in our library should sign up before August 31, and the Library Card will be issued within a week.

  Library of Beijing University

  【解析】

  今年英语(一)的小作文,再一次考查到了通知。在英语(一)的考试中,通知已经考查过1次。例如2010年英语(一)就考查过代表研究生会写一篇为国际会议招募志愿者的通知,而且2015年英语(二)考查的也是招募志愿者的通知。

  同是以图书馆为写作背景,在2007年英语(一)的建议信中也已经考查过,所以相关表达在课堂上都已经涉及过。因此,只要根据2010年通知的格式,再结合2007年建议信的相关内容,就可以很轻松的写出2016年的小作文。这就提醒我们2017届的同学们要高度重视历年真题,因为考过的话题或是应用性短文会反复考查。

  接下来,我们来详细解读今年的小作文。首先看一下题目要求:

  Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.

  小作文,即A节作文的评分侧重点在于:1. 格式和语域的恰当性;2. 信息点的覆盖面;3. 内容的组织;4. 语言的准确性。

  在这里,我们主要从格式和内容两方面来解析此文。首先,从格式上来说,通知的格式包括四大部分:

  1、标题,通知要求必须有标题,可以直接用Notice做标题,注意首字母大写,且标题要居中;

  2、时间,通知的时间要求在标题下方第二行,按照日月年的顺序来写,注意月与年之间要有逗号,且时间要靠右对齐;

  3、正文,通知正文要求首段缩进四个字符,不要求一定分段,但为了内容层次清晰,建议分三段为好。

  4、落款,落款即发布通知的单位,此处需要特别注意,根据题目的要求,考生是代表图书馆写的通知,所以落款应该是某某图书馆,而非Li Ming本人。

  另外,从内容上来看,作为一名图书管理员,要向学生介绍学校的图书馆,其实可以介绍的内容还有很多,比如图书馆的藏书、图书馆的开放时间、入馆要求等等。所以内容部分对大家来说应该也不是难事,具体内容可以参考如上范文。

  Part B

  Directions:

  Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should

  1. describe the pictures briefly,

  2. interpret its intended meaning, and

  3. give your comments.

  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)

  

 

  【范文】

  What is symbolically depicted in the caricatures carries sharp contrast implications. In the first drawing, a father is watching a football match on the sofa. Meanwhile, he is supervising his son to finish homework. It is obvious that his son wears frowned expression on his face. On the contrary, the second portrayal depicts a father is working earnestly besides his son, and his son is doing his own assignment without prodding.

  The drawer demonstrates that utmost significance should be attached to the phenomenon that setting proper examples has exerted great impact on the growth of the younger generation in China. Previously, it is widely acknowledged that parents are under obligation to help their kids form a set of appropriate values about the world and the life, which carries overwhelmingly precious connotation to the sound development on the younger generation. Simultaneously, there is no denying that the most rational method for adults to educate adolescents is to set them good examples rather than making perpetual requirements, which is less persuasive compared with the actions.

  Accordingly, it is vital for us to derive positive implication from the drawings. On the one hand, we can frequently use them to enlighten parents to be more advisable in educating their children. On the other hand, parents should attach more emphasis on setting excellent models for their juveniles. Only in this way, can we effectively ensure a promising prospect for adolescents.

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