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2016考研英语一真题及答案详解:阅读理解

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2015-12-26 21:05:47

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Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text1

France,which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways. The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death –as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.

The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep-and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states:”We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people”. The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week (CFW), which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and -shame method of compliance.

Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

21. According to the first paragraph,what would happen in France?

【A】Physical beauty would be redefined.

【B】New runways would be constructed.

【C】Websites about dieting would thrive.

【D】The fashion industry would decline.

22. The phrase “impinging on”(Line 2,Para.2) is closest in meaning to

【A】heightening the value of

【B】indicating the state of

【C】losing faith in

【D】doing harm to

23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?

【A】The French measures have already failed.

【B】New standards are being set in Denmark.

【C】Models are no longer under peer pressure.

【D】Its inherent problems are getting worse.

24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for

【A】pursuing perfect physical conditions

【B】caring too much about model’s character.

【C】showing little concern for health factors

【D】setting a high age threshold for models.

25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?

【A】A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

【B】A Dilemma for the Starving models in France

【C】Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty

【D】The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry

21 答案 A Physical beauty would be redefined

解析:这是一道细节题,根据France定位到第一段第一句,主干成分为France has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty。此外第二段第二句They suggest beauty should not be define by looks…故而A physical beauty would be redefined为同义替换,即为正确答案。

22 答案 D doing harm to

解析:此题为词义题。定位到第二段第二句They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 根据end up 可以看出beauty should not be defined by looks 和that end up impinging on health为顺承关系,所以“改变人们对美不仅仅是外表的定义”可以结束对健康的危害。故而可以推知doing harm to是正确答案。

23 答案 B New Standards are being set in Denmark

解析:此题是正误判断题。根据第五段第二句话 In Denmark,…it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion…可知B选项 New standards are being set in Denmark是其同义替换。

24 答案 C showing little concern for health factors

解析:细节题。一个设计师很可能因为什么原因被CFW拒绝,根据关键词可回到文中定位至倒数第二段,首句说丹麦的时尚界就有关模特的年龄,健康及其他特性的内容达成一致意见,切一项新法案也明确规定,他们已经意识到时尚界对于人们尤其是年轻人的身体健康所带来的影响,并且该对此负责,接着下一句就说,这一法规的执行方式就是拒绝一些设计师,因为可以推断设计师很可能因为不考虑身体健康因素而被CFW拒绝。

25 答案 D A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

解析:主旨题。本文从首段就开始阐述法国的观点,即时尚界已经失去了定义女性身体之美的权利,且议会也禁止网站通过宣传过度节食来强调过度消瘦。二段继续说明美丽不能只看外表更不能以牺牲健康为代价。三段说女性不该让他人来评判自己的美丽。以及后面的段落中也一直在不断说明一点,即健康很重要,不能只看外表。所以文章最佳标题应该是D,对时尚界完美身材的质疑。

Text 2

For the first time in history more people live in towns than in the country. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate”the countryside”alongside the royal family, Shakespeare and the National Health Serivce (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.

A century ago Octavia Hill Launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save“the beauty of natural places for everyone forever”. It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience“a refreshing air .”Hill’s pressure later led to creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more,and every year concrete consumes more of it . It needs constant guardianship.

At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives’planning reform explicitly gives rural development priority over conservation, even authorising“off-plan”building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance,has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local conservative parties.

The sensible place to build new houses,factories and offices is where people are,in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone,with no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.

The idea that”housing crisis”equals“concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more houses but, as always,where to put them. Under lobby pressure,George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against high streets . This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have grown and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban Development should be planned, not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowed country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. There is no doubt of the alternative --- the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal, Spain or Ireland. Avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite the left and right of the political spectrum.

26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside

[A] has brought much benefit to the NHS.

[B] didn’t start till the Shakespearean age.

[C] is fully backed by the royal family.

[D] is not well reflected in politics.

27. According to Paragraph 2,the achievements of the National Trust are now being

[A] gradually destroyed.

[B] effectively reinforced.

[C] properly protected.

[D] largely overshadowed.

28. which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 3?

[A] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation.

[B] the Conservatives may abandon ”off -plan“ building.

[C] the Liberal Democrats are losing political influence.

[D] labour is under attack for opposing development.

29. the author holds that George Osborne’s preference

[A] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas.

[B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas.

[C] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis.

[D] highlights his firm stand against lobby pressure.

30. In the last paragraph,the author shows his appreciation of

[A] the size of population in Britain.

[B the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain.

[C] the town-and-country planning in Britain.

[D] the political life in today is Britain.

26 答案 D is not well reflected in politics

解析:细节题。精读题干,划出关键词。根据题干回到原文精确定位到首段最后一句,该句中的polls民意调查对应题干中的public sentiment,定位答案处为“this has limited political support”,意思为这在政治支持方面是有限的。与D选项“在政治上没有得到很好的反响”为同义替换。

27 答案 D largely overshadowed

解析:细节题。根据题干,题干中出现大写the National Trust,定位到第二段首句the National Trust该句。二段首句只是对Hill的该项目做介绍,需向后看影响。往下可以读到Hill’s pressure这句,写到“Hill的项目创造出国家公园和绿地。他们不再制造乡村了,而且每年钢筋混凝土消耗的乡村越来越多。乡村需要持久的保护”。对应选项,该项目的成就很大程度上被夺取了光辉。

28 答案 A Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation

解析:推断题。题干问的是从第三段能推出什么,考察的是相应段落的段落中心。观察选项不难发现,选项中都是大写的Ukip,The Conservatives,The Liberal Democrats,Labour。可根据选项中的大写回段落中寻找,发现Ukip所在的定位句为Only的倒装强调句(倒装强调句往往为答案所在处)。该句子意思是:只有Ukip意识到其机会,并支持这些人。和选项A对应一下,Ukip可能能从其对农村保护的支持中获得好处,是同义替换。

29 答案 B Shows his disregard for the character of rural areas

解析:细节题 问的是作者对于奥斯本的偏好(观点)的具体看法。根据关键词奥斯本定位至第五段,因为问的是作者对于奥斯本观点的看法,所以只需要看在奥斯本的观点之后作者的表达内容,第五段倒数两句话就是作者表达自己观点的地方,即“我们没有破坏城市中受到保护的地方”,“你们为什么要破坏乡村的呢?”这就说明奥斯本一方的观点是要破坏乡村环境。所以可得出答案是奥斯本想法表明了他对于乡村人们的忽视。

30 答案 C the-town-and-country planning in Britain

解析:根据题干定位到最后一段,问的是作者欣赏赞同什么,作者的观点即是文章末段的段落中心,可定位到末段末句。末句指出,避免this会将左右党派联系起来,this代词指代指代上句中所提到的内容。Should即作者赞同的地方,也就是作者赞同的是城乡结合。

TEXT3

“There is on and only one social responsibility of business,” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize-winning economist, “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Friedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’ money, things may not be absolutely clear-cut. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies-at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.

The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.

Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. Al recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect.

The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties,. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firm’s political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.

In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern , such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving byabout20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials”, says one researcher.

Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. But at least they have demonstrated that when companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them less costly punishment.

31.The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with

【A】tolerance.

【B】skepticism.

【C】uncertainty.

【D】approval.

32.According to Paragraph 2,CSR helps a company by

【A】winning trust from consumers.

【B】guarding it against malpractices.

【C】protecting it from being defamed.

【D】raising the quality of its products.

33. The expression “more lenient ”(line 2,para.4)is closest in meaning to

【A】more effective

【B】less controversial

【C】less severe

【D】more lasting

34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company’s CSR regard

【A】has an impact on their decision

【B】comes across as reliable evidence

【C】increases the chance of being penalized

【D】constitutes part of the investigation

35.Which of the following is true of CSR, according to the last paragraph?

【A】 Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked.

【B】 The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown.

【C】 Companies’ financial capacity for it has been overestimated.

【D】 It has brought much benefit to the banking industry.

31 答案 B Skepticism

解析:作者观点态度题。题干问的是作者对有关CSR方面Milton Friedman的说法是什么态度。根据大写Milton Friedman这个人定位到定位到首段首句。注意题干问的是作者的看法,因此定位到后一句but转折处。转折处的主题句式“things may not absolutely clear-cut”,作者持的是否定态度,选择答案B。C选项是作者态度不明确,不能选择。

32 答案 A winning trust from consumers

解析:根据题干找到第二段.根据第二段内容,CSR could add value to their business in three ways. 从而定位下面三点。First后面出现了high quality,但是它是在从句中,从句修饰"signal",而本句谓语动词是take,与D中 raising 并不是同义词,故排除。Second,和third 都与消费者购买心态有关,和A选项 winning trust from consumers 相对应。而B,C选项的malpractices和defamed在原文中并未出现,且没有同义词,故排除。

33 答案 C less severe

解析:根据题干找到第四段对应处。可见题干的 more lenient 是作为修饰 penalties(惩罚) 的,故推测本句在讨论 CSR 和 penalties 有什么联系。而本段与惩罚相关的词只有最后一个词 fines(罚金),修饰它的形容词是lower, 故可推测 more lenient 与降低惩罚有关,只有C选项满足。

34 答案 A has an impact on their decision

解析:题干中问的是 CSR record 与 prosecutors evaluate a case 的关系,根据题干内容到对应点:第五段第一句。本句说,...they do seem to be influenced by a company's recore in CSR.这里的 be influenced 与A选项 has an impact 对应,故选A. 而B选项中的 reliable evidence, C 选项中的 the chance of being penalized 在原文中没有体现。D选项中的 investigation 与题干中的 When prosecutors evaluate a case 明显对应不上,故不予考虑。

35 答案 B The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown

解析:该题是一道判断题,题干问的是有关CSR哪个是对的。先根据CSR回到最后一段,定位到末段首句。首句提到“研究人员承认到其研究没有回答如下问题:公司应该在CSR方面花费多少钱”。选项B的意思是公司在其方面的花费是未知的,属于原文的同义替换。

Text 4

There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. “Sometime in the future”, the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.

Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper — printing presses, delivery trucks — isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print away. And though print ad sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining.

Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Joah Peretti.

Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about doing it the right way.” Fighting out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense of them,” he said, “but if you discontinue it, you’re going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”

Sometimes that’s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example seen as a blunder,” he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”

The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. “So if you’re overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,”Peretti said. “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.”In other words, if you’re going to make a print product ,make it for the people who are already obsessed with it. Which way be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs $500 a year — more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription.

“It’s a really hard thing to do and it’s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn’t have a legacy business,”Peretti remarked. “But we’re going to have questions like that where we have things we’re doing that don’t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it’s better to be more aggressive than less aggressive. ”

36.The New York Times is considering ending its print edition partly due to

[A]the pressure from its investors.

[B]the complaints from its readers.

[C]the high cost of operation.

[D]the increasing online ad sales.

37. Peretti suggests that, in face of the present situation, the Times should

[A]make strategic adjustments

[B]end the print edition for good.

[C]seek new sources of readership.

[D]aim for efficient management.

38. It can be inferred form Paragraphs 5 and 6 that a “legacy product”

[A]will have the cost of printing reduced.

[B]is meant for the most loyal customers.

[C]helps restore the glory of former times.

[D]expands the popularity of the paper.

39. Peretti believes that, in a changing world,

[A]traditional luxuries can stay unaffected.

[B]aggressiveness better meets challenges.

[C]cautiousness facilitates problem-solving.

[D]legacy businesses are becoming outdated.

40. Which of the following would be the best title of the text?

[A]Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good.

[B]Keep Your Newspapers Forever in Fashion.

[C]Cherish the Newspaper Still in Your Hand.

[D]Shift to Online Newspapers All at Once.

36 答案 C the high cost of operation

解析:因果细节题,问的是纽约时报考虑停止纸质版新闻印刷出版的原因是什么。文章首段首句即是此内容的同义表达,二段解释具体原因,二段二句内容 The infrastructure isn't just expensive; it's excessive at a time when online-only competitors don't have the same set of financial constraints.意思是维持纸质印刷的基础设施建设不仅仅是贵,是相当贵, 而他们的竞争对手却没有这样的经济上的限制。

37 答案 A make strategic adjustments

解析:细节题,问的是面对目前的形势,Peretti建议时代杂志怎么做,根据关键词Peretti回文定位至第四段,首句内容是Peretti说时代杂志不该浪费时间去想着如何停止纸质印刷,而应该找到一种正确的方法去解决这件事。接着二句往后在具体说明该如何正确解决目前的问题。由此推出答案是A 做出策略上的调整。

38 答案 B is meant for the most loyal customers

解析:推断题与词汇题的结合,要根据上下文来做出选择。首先定位在第五段最后一句:I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product. 不仅要提高价格还要将它变为一种可以传承的产物。单单这一句不足以做出选择。需要继续往下看在第六段中有没有对于这个词的解释之类的。第六段开头提到了他认为most consumer 依旧坚持去相信他们认为好的东西,喜欢的,相信的东西。如果可以每年增加一些比例,那么依旧是可以创收的。长篇大段的叙述可以让大家明白这个词一定跟consumer有关。最为关键的是:紧接着出现了 in other world, 重述上文,不过却简洁的总结了前文。如果我们要做这些print product, 那就选择那些已经痴迷于他们的人吧。(那么对于他们来讲就是一件可以传承的东西了,以前喜欢,会依旧喜欢下去)。所以这句为做题的关键,对应同义替换,选择B。

A选项中的降低成本没有在文中相应位置涉及到。 C重建以往的关荣,与消费者关系不大 D扩大受欢迎程度,范围过大。

39 答案 B aggressiveness better meets challenges

解析:观点态度题。偏细节题。定位Peretti在文中的观点,首次出现在第三段 overhead…but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake.并且一直贯穿于下文。我们首先从选项来看。A 中…can stay unaffected 过于绝对,不选。D 选项中legacy business 不是文中的讨论话题,所以可以直接排除。而C选项中谨慎可以促进问题的解决,在perreti的观点中根本没有体现,相反他建议要有所改变,并且要找对方式,言下之意就是大胆去面对挑战。所以最终确定是B。

40 答案 A Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good

解析:主旨题。出现在最后一道题目中,全文共有7段,根据上面的细节题目,大致可以确定本文的中心词为“print newspaper”B,C 两个选项中的newspaper 都属于范围过大,是主旨题的典型错误选项,而D选项中出现的online newspaper 只是文中print newspaper时提到的一个面临的 一个挑战,不足以引领全文,并且all at once, 是“立刻,马上”之意,与原文的观点也有出入,最终确定选A。

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