Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
People have speculated for centuries about a future without work .Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again_____(1)that technology be replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by_____(2)A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.
A different and not mutually exclusive_____(3)holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one_____(4)by purposelessness： Without jobs to give their lives_____(5), people will simply become lazy and depressed._____(6),today's unemployed don't seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for_____(7)Americans. Also, some research suggests that the_____(8)for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting_____(9)poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many_____(10)the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.
But it doesn't_____(11)follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the_____(12)of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the_____(13)of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could_____(14)strikingly different circumstanced for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the_____(15)of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.
These days, because leisure time is relatively_____(16)for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional_____(17)of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day's work, I often feel_____(18)," Danaher says, adding, "In a world in which I don't have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself_____(19)a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for_____(20)matters.
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley's world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.
Parkrun is succeeding where London's Olympic "legacy" is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run-up to 2012-but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to "inspire a generation." The success of Parkrun offers answers.
Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.
Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally "grassroots", concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods-making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.
21.【题干】According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has_____.
A.gained great popularity
B.created many jobs
C.strengthened community ties
D.become an official festival
22.【题干】The author believes that London's Olympic "legacy" has failed to_____.
A.boost population growth
B.promote sport participation
C.improve the city's image
D.increase sport hours in schools
23.【题干】Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it_____.
A.aims at discovering talents
B.focuses on mass competition
C.does not emphasize elitism
D.does not attract first-timers
24.【题干】With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should_____.
A.organize "grassroots" sports events
B.supervise local sports associations
C.increase funds for sports clubs
D.invest in public sports facilities
25.【题干】The author's attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is_____.
With so much focus on children's use of screens, it's easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. "Tech is designed to really suck on you in," says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, "and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine."
Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.
Infants are wired to look at parents' faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device-it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the "still face experiment" devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother's attention. "Parents don't have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need," says Radesky.
On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids' use of screens are born out of an "oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting" with their children: "It's based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you're failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them." Tronick believes that just because a child isn't learning from the screen doesn't mean there's no value to it-particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time.
26.【题干】According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______.
A.simplify routine matters
B.absorb user attention
C.better interpersonal relations
D.increase work efficiency
27.【题干】Radesky's food-testing exercise shows that mothers' use of devices ______.
A.takes away babies' appetite
B.distracts children's attention
C.slows down babies' verbal development
D.reduces mother-child communication
28.【题干】Radesky's cites the "still face experiment" to show that _______.
A.it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions
B.verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange
C.children are insensitive to changes in their parents' mood
D.parents need to respond to children's emotional needs
29.【题干】The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______.
A.protect kids from exposure to wild fantasies
B.teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year
C.ensure constant interaction with their children
D.remain concerned about kid's use of screens
30.【题干】According to Tronick, kid's use of screens may_______.
A.give their parents some free time
B.make their parents more creative
C.help them with their homework
D.help them become more attentive
Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn't feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn't academic.
But while this may be true, it's not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There's always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated "race to the finish line," whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits-in fact, it probably enhances it.
Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.
If you're not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.
31.【题干】One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that_____.
A.they think it academically misleading
B.they have a lot of fun to expect in college
C.it feels strange to do differently from others
D.it seems worthless to take off-campus courses
32.【题干】Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps_____.
A.keep students from being unrealistic
B.lower risks in choosing careers
C.ease freshmen's financial burdens
D.relieve freshmen of pressures
33.【题干】The word "acclimation" (Line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to_____.
34.【题干】A gap year may save money for students by helping them_____.
A.avoid academic failures
B.establish long-term goals
C.switch to another college
D.decide on the right major
35.【题干】The most suitable title for this text would be_____.
A.In Favor of the Gap Year
B.The ABCs of the Gap Year
C.The Gap Year Comes Back
D.The Gap Year: A Dilemma
Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.
In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work-such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep-that affect the lives of all Americans.
Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?
"It's already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country," he says. We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, "Wait a minute, is this OK?" "Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?"
Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.
For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change-how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.
While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn't come at the expense of the rest of the equation.
"The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways," he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to "an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited."
At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.
"We've disconnected ourselves from living with fire," Balch says. "It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today."
36.【题干】More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they_____.
A.exhausted unprecedented management efforts
B.consumed a record-high percentage of budget
C.severely damaged the ecology of western states
D.caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure
37.【题干】Moritz calls for the use of "a magnifying glass" to _____.
A.raise more funds for fire-prone areas
B.avoid the redirection of federal money
C.find wildfire-free parts of the landscape
D.guarantee safer spending of public funds
38.【题干】While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that _____.
A.public debates have not settled yet
B.fire-fighting conditions are improving
C.other factors should not be overlooked
D.a shift in the view of fire has taken place
39.【题干】The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to _____.
A.discover the fundamental makeup of nature
B.explore the mechanism of the human systems
C.maximize the role of landscape in human life
D.understand the interrelations of man and nature
40.【题干】Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should _____.
A.do away with
B.come to terms with
C.pay a price for
D.keep away from
Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. "We don't make anything anymore," he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.
Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing.
But there is also a different way to look at the data.
Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.
For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers-and upward pressure on wages. "They're harder to find and they have job offers," says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, "They may be coming [into the workforce], but they've been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing," Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.
At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.
At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he's trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It's his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. "I love working with tools. I love creating." he says.
But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials "remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession," says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.
These concerns aren't misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels.
"The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill," says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. "There're enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don't need to have much skill. It's that gap in between, and that's where the problem is."
Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. "Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives," she says.
[A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools。
41。 Jay Deuwell [B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill。
42。 Jason Stenquist [C] points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything anymore。
43。 Birgit Klohs [D] believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers。
44。 Rob Spohr [E] says that for factory owners， workers are harder to find because of stiff competition。
45.Julie Parks [F] points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing。
[G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents。
41.根据题干人名Jay 定位文中“They’re harder to find and they have job offers,”他们很难发现他们有工作邀请。harder对应选项 stiff(艰难地)
42.根据题干人名Jason Stenquist对应文中“I love working with tools. I love creating,” he says.我爱与工具打交道，我喜欢创新，tool对应选项tool
43.根据题干人名Birgit Klohs，定位文中“remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,”记住他们的爸爸妈妈都下岗了，他们归因于生产萧条。文中blame对应选项blame
44.根据人名Rob Spohr,对应文中 The gap is between the jobs that take no skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr, 工作之间的差距是那个不需要技能，而那些需要很多技能。文中skill对应选项skill(技能)
45.题干问Julie的观点，对应文中“We’ve never had so much attention from manufacturers.”我从没有得到过这么多来自制造商的注意，attraction对应选项attract(吸引)
Section III Translation
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realised that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream - I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all!
2017年英语二的翻译题是一篇关于梦想的小短文，全文共5句话，前两句话比较简短且简单，后三句较长，但难度也都不大。第一句话是个简单句，“我的梦想一直是在时装设计和出版领域找寻一份职业”。第二句话中，secondary school 是“中学”短语move on to是“继续做某事，转移到”，全句的意思是“在我中学毕业的两年前，我曾选修了一门“缝纫和设计”的课程，thinking that 做了非谓语动词的结构并且起到伴随状语的作用，翻译为“并以为我能再继续去修一门”时装设计“的课程”第三句话中，前半句是主语，谓语加宾语从句，后面是so引导的结果状语从句，during that course 是时间状语，I 是主语，realised是谓语动词，that引导宾语从句，其中personalities不能理解为个性，品格，在文中应该指名人，精英，人才，so引导的结果状语从句中也是主语，谓语加宾语从句的结构，全句的意思是“然而，就在整个学习过程中，我意识到，我将来在这个领域是无法与那些富于创新精神的精英人才相比的。于是，我断定这条路行不通”。第四句话中，Before applying for university是时间状语，that引导宾语从句，because引导原因状语从句，本句的难点在于writing was, and still is, one of my favorite activities这一部分中was 和is的翻译方法，表示过去和将来的状态，apply for是申请的意思，journalism要翻译成“新闻学”不能直译为“新闻业，新闻工作”，本句的意思是“在申请上大学之前，我对所有人讲:我想学新闻学，因为，写作曾经是并且现在也一直是我最喜欢的事情之一。”最后一句主句是主谓宾结构I said it，后面是because引导原因状语从句，从句中是I thought that主谓加宾从结构，此句难点在于fashion and me together was just a dream的译法，不能直译，要意译为“我认为从事时装设计不过是一个梦想”， apart from是“除了”的意思，结合上文fashion industry也可意译为“时装设计”，所以全句的意思是“但是，说实话，我之所以这样说，是因为我认为从事时装设计不过是我的一个梦想，我也知道，除了我之外，没有人能想象出我会从事时装设计的工作。”
Section IV Writing
Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students. Write a reply to
1)Accept the invitation, and
2)Introduce the key points of your presentation.
You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET.
Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead.
Do not write the address .(10 points)
Dear Professor Williams,
I feel really delighted and honored to be invited by you to give a presentation to the foreign students, and I will certainly be careful to prepare for the making of it.
To let the overseas students know much about our Chinese culture, I think that my presentation is supposed to include at least two key points. On the one hand, I will put much stress on the history of China. You must know that our China is an ancient country with a pretty long history. On the other hand, my second strong point should be put on the main diet in China. The reason is that Chinese people in different regions have totally different inclination to choose food and Chinese food everywhere is quite delicious.
Those two points are what I would like to emphasize, and I would like to know of your opinions on this and I wish you could give me some further ideas on it. I am looking forward to your reply. Thank you.
从该书信的称呼来看，属于知道对方姓名且知其职业或身份，那么如果写成Dear Sir or Madam, 或者To Whom It May Concern，是不合理的，而且直呼其名不加头衔也同样不合适，因此要使用Dear Professor Williams. 注意这几个单词全部都需要大写开头字母。尤其大家直接用笔来写的时候，一定要尽量突出首字母。
落款： Yours sincerely, 特别提醒sincerely后面逗号不能丢;
签名： Li Ming特别注意 Ming 后面一定不能出现句点。 落款和前面左、右对齐都可以。
Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
1) interpret the chart, and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
The chart shows great changes in the number of museums and their visitors during the period from 2013 to 2015. According to the data given, what we cannot fail to see is that there is a sharp growth in the amounts of museums from 4165 to 4697 over the period from 2013 to 2015, while it is also pronounced that the number of their visitors increased sharply from 637.8 million to 781.1 million during this period.
At least two fundamental factors could be identified to contribute to this phenomenon. To begin with, it is widely admitted that with the rapid economic development in the whole social climate has been the dramatically upgraded living standard, which results in the common phenomenon that people in growing numbers can afford the once-deemed-expensive experience. In addition, there is no denying that the authorities concerned have issued a series of preferential policies to protect and promote the development of cultural industry, which encourages a widespread extension of visitors.
From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that this trend will certainly maintain for quite a while in the near future, which will be of great benefits to our country and individual as well.