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考研最后20天,攻克英语阅读理解中的指代题

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2014-11-24 16:16:45

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  指代题一般是就文中划线的词和句子,进行同义转换,看似简单,但如果想做好必须对相关部分的信息有一个比较准确地理解和把握,下面就为大家介绍一下指代题的相关知识。

  【真题例举】

  An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced. By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy。

  In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?

  In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industrywould get cracking on responding to DNT requests。

  On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10, the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default。

  Advertisers are horrified. Human nature being what it is, most people stick with default settings. Few switch DNT on now, but if tracking is off it will stay off. Bob Liodice, the chief executive of the Association of National Advertisers, says consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect information about their preferences. People will not get fewer ads, he says “They’ll get less meaningful, less targeted ads。”

  It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway。

  Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, blogged: "we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple?

  【问题】

  “The industry” (Line 6,Para.3) refers to 。

  [A] online advertisers [B] e-commerce conductors

  [C] digital information analysis [D] internet browser developers

  【解析】

  题干和选项译文:

  第三自然段的the industry指的是 。

  A。线上广告商 B。电子商务运营商

  C。数字信息分析师 D。互联网浏览器开发商

  答案:D

  先看包含题干中词汇的句子:In February the FTC and Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests。在这句话中已经给出了一条线索:Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA)数字广告联盟。往前寻找还有一条线索:Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT和Google's Chrome is due to do so this year=互联网浏览器开发商。选项分析:根据刚才的线索可以排除的是B和C两个选项,剩下的A线上广告商和D互联网浏览器开发商。这里毕竟是相对比较单纯的指代题,所以依据所见即所得的原则,答案是D。

  特别说明:有个问题确实很难绕开:实际上这些浏览器的开发商本来就是广告商,所以选A和D在实质上是一样的。这个题目考完之后很多人都在争论,这也是这么多年来真题中出现的很无厘头的一个节目,所以选错的同学们不用纠结,这种情况以后应该基本很少出现。

  【方法总结】

  指代题在考研中有两种,一种是代词的指代,一种是名词的指代,例题就是名词的指代。往前寻找对应的词,同时可以采取代入法的方式解题,即将四个选项都代入文中进行比对。做指代题的时候要注意,首先要把代词或名词所在的句子拿出来做长难句分析,理清句子结构,其次要联系上下文,读懂相关句子的含义,掌握相关信息,可以将选项代入原文,多少会排除一两个;最后就是要本着所见即所得的原理,不做过度的推理。

  不同的题型有不同的应对方法,但对于英语阅读的复习却是应对不同题型的通用法宝,不管是词汇、长难句的积累,还是语感的把握,都能为不同解题方法的实施更好地奠定基础,大家一定要双管齐下,才能在考场上出奇制胜。

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