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   Section 1 Use of English

  Directions:Readthe following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank andmark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 .

  The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 .

  While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."

  The team also developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes.

  The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 , as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 !

  One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.

  The findings do not simply corroborate people’s 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.

  1 A what         B why           C how           D when

  2 A defended     B concluded     C withdrawn     D advised

  3 A for          B with          C by            D on

  4 A separated    B sought        C compared      D connected

  5 A tests        B objects       C samples       D examples

  6 A insignificant B unexpected   C unreliable    D incredible

  7 A visit         B miss         C know          D seek

  8 A surpass       B influence    C favor         D resemble

  9 A again         B also         C instead       D thus

  10 A Meanwhile    B Furthermore  C Likewise      D Perhaps

  11 A about        B to           C from          D like

  12 A limit        B observe      C confuse       D drive

  13 A according to B rather than  C regardless of D along with

  14 A chances      B responses    C benefits      D missions

  15 A faster       B slower       C later         D earlier

  16 A forecast     B remember     C express       D understand

  17 A unpredicted  B contributory C controllable  D disruptive

  18 A tendency     B decision     C arrangement   D endeavor

  19 A political    B religious    C ethnic        D economic

  20 A see          B show         C prove         D tell


  1、A what 本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第一个空考察表语从句的引导词。

  2、B concluded 本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第二个空为针对从句谓语进行的词义考察。

  3、D on 本句前半句的句意是:这项研究是一个基于1932个独特个体的基因组广谱分析。考察Conduct on词组,进行。从句意为:它对成对儿的非亲缘朋友和陌生人进行比较。

  4、C compared 比较,根据上下文及后一句的same知道,比较为最佳。

  5、C samples 词义题,样本,C为最佳选项。

  6、A insignificant 词义题,1%,以及后面的not so转折,判断,A insignificant不显著,为最佳选项。

  7、C know 句意为:一些人虽然并不认识他们第四代的表亲,但他们选择的朋友却和这些亲戚颇有相似之处。

  8、D resemble 词义题,和上一个空形成转折。

  9、B also 上下文逻辑题,发现了,还发现了。Also为最佳选项。

  10、D Perhaps 结合上下文:这一现象很难解释,后面接原因,原因“可能”是……最符合文章大意。

  11、B to 介词题,意为:就像这个科研团队所发现的,这个因素不仅把我们带到详细的环境中来,更有一些深层次的影响。

  12、D drive 词义题,根据上下文,对我们产生影响,驱使我们……drive为最佳选项。

  13、B rather than 逻辑题,基因上相似的,功能上相似的,二者对立不能同时存在,rather than不是…而是最符合。

  14、C benefits 跟“功能”搭配,选个褒义词,带来好处的,最佳。

  15、A faster 词义题,根据后半句解释,这就是为什么“picked pace”加速,这里只能选faster,一些比另外一些进化得更快,符合文意。

  16、D understand 词义题,这个研究可以帮助我们理解一个事实。

  17、B contributory 本句意为:社会环境是最主要的一个因素。Contributory贡献,最佳。

  18、A tendency 结合文章主旨,选择基因相似的人做朋友是普遍现象,tendency趋势倾向最符合。

  19、C ethnic 同义替换,基因背景相似,种族的,民族的,最符合。

  20、A see 本句意为:尽管所有的研究对象都取自欧洲血统,研究者也花心思确保了所有(用于比对的)朋友和陌生人也源自该血统中的同一支系。







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