[A]No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm as the humanities. You can, Mr. Menand points out, become a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degree in the humanities is nine years. Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees.
[C] Equally unsurprisingly, only about half end up :with professorships for which they entered graduate school. There are simply too few posts. This is partly because universities continue to produce ever more PhDs.
【解析】C选项的开头提到Equally unsurprisingly同样不令人惊讶的是，这表明请问出现过一次unsurprisingly，即A选项的末句Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees.我们解题是就是利用这种首尾句的线索词，来确定两个段落之间的逻辑关系。
Today ,the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarlydebates,rather than on topics with external impact.Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004.(43)_______________.
[B] However,the numbers are still small:in 2010,about 1,600 of the100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of theseKeywords.
【解析】43题空缺出现在段落的最后，证明与其关系最紧密的应该是其前一句话。Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004.句子的中心话题是在讲论文的数量快速增加了。那么后文应该继续围绕论文数量的话题展开论述。答案B选项正是在谈the numbers数量问题，并且与前文是转折关系。前者说数量增加了，后文转折后说“但是这个数量依然很小”。