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2016考研英语一真题汇总(word版)

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2015-12-26 19:20:16

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Section 1 Use of English

Directious:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

In Cambodia, the choice of a souse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, 1 those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker.A young man 2 a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to 3 the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. 4 , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. 5 a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying 6 a good family.

The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, 7 by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and 8 prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, 9 cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and 10 a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the 11 . Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife’s parents and may 12 with them up to a year, 13 they can bulid a new house nearby.

Divorce is legal and easy to 14 , but not common. Divorces persons are 15 with some disapproval. Easch spouse retains 16 property he or she Divorced persons may.

1.[A]by way of [B]with regard to [C]on behalf of [D]as well as

2.[A]decide on [B]provide for [C]compete with [D]adapt to

3.[A]close [B] arrange [C]renew [D]postpone

4.[A]In theory [B] Above all [C]In time [D]For example

5.[A]Unless [B] Lest [C]After [D]Although

6.[A]into [B] within [C]from [D]through

7.[A]or [B]since [C]but [D]so

8.[A] test [B]copy [C]recite [D]create

9.[A]folding [B]piling [C]wrapping [D]tying

10.[A]passing [B]lighting [C]hiding [D]serving

11.[A]association [B]meeting [C]collection [D]union

12.[A]deal [B]part [C]grow [D]live

13.[A]whereas [B]until [C]for [D]if

14.[A]avoid [B]follow [C]challenge [D]obtain

15.[A]isolated [B]persuaded [C]viewed [D]exposed

16.[A]wherever [B]whatever [C]whenever [D]however

17.[A]changed [B]brought [C]shaped [D]pushed

18.[A]invested [B]divided [C]donated [D]withdrawn

19.[A]warms [B]clears [C]shows [D]breaks

20.[A]while [B]so that [C]once [D]in that

Text1

France,which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion , has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways . The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death –as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women , especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

The bans ,if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.

The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep-and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a govemment-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states:”We aware of and take responsibility for the impact the ideals, especially on young people”. The charter’s main tool of enforcement is (CFW), which is run by the Danish

21. According to the first paragraph,what would happen in France?

【A】Physical beauty would be redefined.

【B】New runways would be constructed.

【C】Wcbsites about dieting would thrive.

【D】The fanshing industry would decline.

22. The phrase “impinging on”(Line 2,Para.2) is closest in meaning to

【A】heightening the value of.

【B】indicating the state of.

【C】losing faith in.

【D】doing harm to.

23. Which of the following is true od the fashion industry?

【A】The French measures have already failed.

【B】New standrds are being set in Denmark.

【C】Models are no longer under peer pressure.

【D】Its inberent problerma are getting wotse.

Text 2

For the first time in history more people live in towns than in the country, In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate”the countryside”alongside the royal family,Shakespeare and the National Health Serivce (NHS) at what makes them proudest of their country,this has limited political support.

A century ago Octavia Hill Launched the national trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever” It was specifically to provide city dwellers with space for leisure where they could experience“a refreshing air .”Hill is pressure later led to creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more,and every year concrete consumes more of it . it needs constant guardianship.

At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives planning reform explicitly gives rural development priority over conservation,even authorsing “off-plan”building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The liberal democrats are silent. Only ukip, sensing its chance,has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land.its Campaign to protect rural England struck terror into many local conservative parties.

The sensible place to build new houses,factories and offices is where people are,in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents stirling ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone,with no intrusion on green belt.what is true of London is even truer of the provinces.

The idea that”housing crisis ”equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more houses but,as always,where to put them. Under lobby pressure,George Osboyne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town,shopping sites against high streets . this is not a free market but a biased one. Rural town and villages have grown and will

26 Britain is public sentiment about the countryside

A has brought much benefit to the NHS

B didn’t start till the Shakespearean age

C is fully backed by the royal family

D is not well reflected in politics

27 According to Paragraph 2,the achievements of the National Trust are now being

A gradually destroyed

B effectively reinforced

C properly protected

D largely overshadowed

28 which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 3?

A Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation

B the conservatives may abandon ”off -plan“building

C the liberal democrats are losing political influence

D labour is under attack for opposing development

29 the author holds that George Osborne is preference

A reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas

B shows his disregard for character of rural areas

C stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis

D highlights his firm stand against lobby pressure

30 in the last paragraph,the author shows his appreciation of

A the size of population in Britain

B the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain

C the town-and-country planning in Britain

D the political life in today is Britain

Text 4

There will eventurally come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint .Exactlly when that day will be is a matter of debate.”Sometime in the future ”,the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.

Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive toditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper—printing presses ,delivery trucks-isn’t just expensive ;it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints.Readers are migrating away from print away .And though print ad sales still dwarf thire online and mobile counterparts,revenue from print is still declining.

Over way be high and circulation lower ,but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake ,say BuzzFeed CEO Joah Peretti.

Pereti says the Time should’t waste time getting out of the print business,

But only if they go about it the right way .”Fighting out of a way to accelerate that transition would make sense of them,”he said,“but if you discontinue it“you’re going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”

Sometimes,that’s worth making a change anyway.Peretti gives the example seen as a blunder,”he said.“The move turned out to be foresighted.Ane if peretti would rale prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”

The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor,the idea goes,and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in ,”So if you’re overpaying for print,you could feel like you were helping,”Perettisaid “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.”In other words,if you’re going to make a print product ,make it for the people who are already obsessed with it .which way be what the time is doing already .Getting the print edition seven days a week costs each –a year-more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription.

36.The New York Times is considering ending its print edition partly due to

[A]the pressure from its investors.

[B]the complaints from its readers.

[C]the high cost of operation.

[D]the increating online ad sales.

37.Peretti suggests that,in face of the present situation,the Times should

[A]make strategic adjustments

[B]end the print sdition for good.

[C]seek new sources of readership.

[D]aim for efficient management.

38.It can be inferred form Paragraphs 5and6 that a “legacy product”

[A]will have the cost of printing reduced.

[B]is meant for the most loyal customers.

[C]helps restore the glory of former times.

[D]expands the popularity of the paper.

39.Peretti believes that,in a changing world,

[A]traditional luxuries can stay unaffected.

[B]aggressiveness better meets challenges.

[C]cautiousness facilitates problem-solving.

[D]legacy businesses are becoming outdated.

40.which of the following would be the best title of the text?

[A]Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good.

[B]Keep Your Newspapers Forever in Fashion.

[C]Cherish the Newspaper Still in Your Hand.

[D]Shift Online Newspapers All at Once.

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs(41-45).There are two extra subheadings.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 Points)

No matter how formal or informa the work environment,the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in first impressions. According to research from Princeton University,people assess your competence,trustworthiness,and likeability in just a tenth of a second,solely based on the way you look.

The difference between today’s workplace and the“dress for succeas” era is that the range of options is so much broader.Norms have evolved and fragmented

In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in others not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials,it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing.

So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what’s the best way to pull off one that enhance our goals? Here are some tips;

41about how others perceive you.Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK.

42.Get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more “SoHo.”(It’s OK to use characterizations like that.)

43. Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What converys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you understand the cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.

44. Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like J.Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It’s not as expensive as you might think.

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the undetlined segments into Chinese.Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Mental health is our birthright.(46) We don’t have to learn how to be mentally heally; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone. Mental health can’t be learned, only reawakened. It is like the immune system or the body, which under stress or through lack of nutrition or exercise can be weakened, but which never leaves us. When we don’t understand the value of mental health and we don’t know how to gain access to it, mental health will remain hidden from us.(47) Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere ;like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.

Mental health is the seed that contains self-esteem-confidence in ourselves and an ability to trust in out common sense. It allows us to have perspective on our lives – the ability to not take ourselves too seriously, to laugh at ourselves, to see the bigger picture, and to see that things will woke out. It’s a form of innate or unlearned optimism. (48) Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles. With kindness if they ate in pain .and with unconditional love no matter who they are. Mental health is the source of creativity for solving problems, resolving conflict, making our surroundings more beautiful. Managing our home life , or coming up with a creative business idea or invention to make our lives easier. It gives us patience for

About how others perceive you.Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK.

Section III Writing

Part A

51 .Directions:

Suppose you are a librarian in your university .Write a notice of about 100 words,providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

DO not sigh your own name at the end of the notice.Use “Li Ming” instead.

DO not write the address.(10 points)

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