Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration -one of the great folk wanderings of history-swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.
47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American.
49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on meager rations. Many of the ships were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes tempests blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought interminable delay.
To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief. Said one chronicler, "The air at twelve leagues' distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden." The colonists' first glimpse of the new land was a vista of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.
文章来源于An Outline of American History，《美国历史纲要》，是一本历史学方面的专著。
46 We don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone.
【句子结构】分号连接的两个并列句，第一个并列句主干是 We don’t have to learn ，how引导宾语从句做learn的宾语，第二个并列句主干是it is built into us in the same way，that引导定语从句修饰先行词way，that定语从句中主干是our bodies know，how引导宾语从句做know的宾语。
47 Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.
【句子结构】分号连接的两个并列句, 第一个并列句主谓结构，很简单，第二个并列句中，like the sun behind a cloud是状语，but 连接两个并列分句，包括短语be hidden from 和be capable of. 涉及被动语态的翻译方法。
48 Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are.
【句子结构】句子主干是 Mental health allows us to view others， 三个并列with 引导的介词短语做状语，前两个with引导的状语中各包含一个if引导的条件状从，最后一个with状语中包含一个no matter 引导的让步状语。
【解析】本题有一个由although引导的让步状语从句，as引导的时间状语从句，以及that引导的宾语从句构成。此处“mental health”若是翻译成心理健康与下文连接，则不符合中文表达习惯，又因mental本身与智力相关，所以将其翻译成“健康的心智”;此外“perfectly ordinary”可以正译，译为“非常普遍”，本译文采取正话反说的方式，译为“并不稀奇”。再次，“difficult decisions”若翻译为困难的决定，不符合中文的表达方式，所以将decision，名词译为动词“做决定”。
50. As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us slow down to the moment and live life happily.