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2016考研英语二答案解析:完形填空

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2015-12-27 13:47:54

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Section 1 Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence__1__firm’s work, too.

Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.__2__, firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking__3__for making investments for the future.

The researchers wanted to know if the__4__and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would__5__the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness__6__by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.

__7__enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were__8__.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities__9__why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various__10__that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was__11__to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally__12__even after accounting for these things.

The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors__13__to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less__14__managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was__15__stronger in places where happiness was spread more__16__.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.

__17__ this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least__18__at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help__19__how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and__20__R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.

1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when

2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion

3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary

4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism

5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change

6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed

7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often

8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered

9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize

10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods

11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable

12. [A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke

13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare

14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced

15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never

16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally

17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since

18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes

19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share 20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out

1. [标准答案] [C]how

[考点分析] 连词辨析

[选项分析] 根据语境,“新发现表明:快乐可能会影响工作__的稳定。”[A] 为什么 [B] 哪里 [C] 怎样,多么 [D] 当…时候。根据语义分析,C选项填入原文,译为“快乐可能会影响工作是有多么稳定”,C为正确选项。

2. [标准答案] [B]In particular

[考点分析] 上下文语义以及短语辨析

[选项分析] [A] 反过来 [B] 尤其是 [C] 相反 [D] 总的来说 根据前文语境,第二段第一句译为“根据近期的研究,拥有更多快乐的人的公司会投资更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快乐氛围中的公司会做更多的研发以及发展。“第二句是在第一句的基础上进一步强调说明,因此B选项更符合语境要求。

3. [标准答案] [D]necessary

[考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析

[选项分析] [A]充足的 [B] 著名的 [C] 完美的 [D] 必要的 首先,根据本句题干 “That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”译为“因为快乐与对未来投资有______长远考虑相联系。”要求填写形容词, 我们要考虑其搭配与其修饰成分。空格处搭配介词for, 并且修饰“长远考虑”。因此D选项最符合语境要求。

4. [标准答案] [C]optimism

[考点分析] 上下文语义及名词词义辨析

[选项分析] [A]个人主义 [B] 现代主义 [C] 乐观主义 [D] 现实主义 本题考查同后缀的名词辨析。根据原文主旨,探讨“happy people”与公司的关系。那么,衡量四个选项,只有C选项符合主旨要求。

5. [标准答案] [D]change

[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

[选项分析] [A]发出回声 [B] 想念,错过 [C] 破坏 [D] 改变 根据原文语境,“would 5 the way companies invested.”本题考查动宾搭配,宾语为“公司投资的方式”只有D选项搭配最为合理。

6.[标准答案] [B]measured

[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

[选项分析] [A]想象 [B] 衡量,测量 [C] 发明 [D] 假定,设想 “So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”译为“他们把盖洛普咨询公司所_____的美国城市平均幸福指数与该地区的上市公司投资活跃度进行对比。” 根据原文语境,盖洛普咨询公司所做的应该是一个“既定事实”所以排除ACD。因此,B选项为最佳选项。

7.[标准答案] [A]Sure

[考点分析] 上下文语义及固定搭配

[选项分析] [A]确信的 [B] 奇怪的 [C] 不幸运的 [D] 经常的 本题为固定搭配“sure enough” 译为“足以肯定的是,”

8.[标准答案] [D]headquartered

[考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析

[选项分析] [A]广告的 [B] 划分的 [C] 课税过重的 [D]位于总部的 根据原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 . ”译为“足以肯定的是,公司投资与研发力度与公司______的幸福指数相关。”in which 引导表示地点的定语从句,先行词为area.对比四个选项,ABC不足以说明此地点的真实含义。因此,D选项,搭配前文area,构成“总部所在地”最为合理。

9.[标准答案] [A]explain

[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

[选项分析] [A]解释 [B] 夸大 [C] 概述[D]重点强调 根据原文“…or ould something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” A选项 “explain”常和后文 “why” 搭配使用。

10.[标准答案] [B]factors

[考点分析] 上下文语义及名词词义辨析

[选项分析] [A]阶段 [B] 因素 [C] 等级[D]方法 根据原文语境“To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”本题中,破折号后面 “大小,产业,销售”这些都是 “让公司有更多投资的”因素。因此,B选项最符合原文语境。

11.[标准答案] [A] desirable

[考点分析] 上下文语义和形容词

[选项分析] 该空填的是形容词,用来修饰前面的名词place,并且在意义上也是对后面like growth in wages or population的解释,可以看出来应该是填褒义词,并且能修饰place.所以只有[A]desirable合适的 符合文章。[B]social 社交的 [C]reputable 受尊敬的 [D]reliable 可依靠的。

12. [标准答案] [B]held

[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

[选项分析] 该句算是这一段的总结句,该段整体在描述幸福与投资之间的关系,而这一link就只能得出了,只有[B]held ”得出”符合语境。A resumed “重新开始”,C emerge “浮现”,D broke “破坏”。

13.[标准答案] [A] attribute

[考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系以及动词词组辨析

[选项分析]该空是一个which引导的定语从句的谓语动词所在地,动词的宾语就是前面的主句,强调“幸福与投资之间的关系尤其适用于新公司”这一结论与后面“所做决定会偏草率”之间的关系,能看出是一个因果关系,因此答案选择[A]attribute 与to 搭配表示“归因于……”,而[B]assign to表示“指派”[C]transfer to“转移到”[D]compare to“与……比较”均不符合题意。

14.[标准答案] [D] experienced

[考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析

[选项分析] 此处很简单,前面有一个并列连词and, 与前面的young一致修饰managers,强调新公司的领导年轻并缺乏经验,只有[D]experienced最合适。

15. [标准答案] [C] also

[考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系以及副词词义辨析

[选项分析]前面说到了“年轻的新经理决策时更容易受情绪影响。”与后面的“这种关系在员工幸福指数_____的公司尤为明显。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快乐的员工所在的部门,而不是那些不快乐的部门。”之间很明显是一种递进关系,所以只有[C]also合适。

16. [标准答案] [D]equally

[考点分析] 上下文语义及副词词义辨析

[选项分析] 这题是考察副词修饰spread, 但是更要注意的是该句“这种关系在员工幸福指数_____的公司尤为明显。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快乐的员工所在的部门,而不是那些不快乐的部门。”中该空与后面的inequality形成复现关系,所以很容易判断出答案选择[D]equally。

17. [标准答案] [C] while

[考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系

[选项分析] 该题是典型的考察上下文逻辑关系的题目,因此着力点应该放在上一段和这一段之间的关系。这一段第一句明确说出“这并不证明是幸福导致公司大量投资……”,所以两句话之间是一个转折关系,选择while.

18. [标准答案] [C]hints

[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

[选项分析] 该题可以看出是考察动词与at的固定搭配,arrive at是“到达,抵达”,jump at是“扑向;欣然接受”hint at是“暗示” strike at是“袭击,攻击”,文章中的at least 和that possibility论证了这是一种可能,只有hint at有这层含义。

19. [标准答案] [A]shape

[考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

[选项分析] 根据上下文应该选一个“影响”未来看法含义的动词,[B]是“再发现”[C]是“使简化,使单纯”[D]是“分享”所以可以均可以排除,A 是“塑造,形成,影响”,所以A项是最佳答案。

20. [标准答案] [B]lean towards

[选项分析] 上下文语义及动词词组词义辨析

[考点分析] 本空考察动词词组,且该词组词义应与and前面意思保持一致,且作用对象为研发。[A]pray for 祈祷 [B]lean towards 倾向 [C]give away 放弃,泄露 [D]send out 放出,给予。只有[B]选项能表达一种递进含义。

【全文翻译】

快乐的人工作起来会有不同。他们更多产,更有创造力,也更愿意去冒险。近期的一项研究表明快乐也可能会影响公司的工作。

根据近期的研究报告,在各地的公司里,拥有更多快乐的员工会投入的更多。尤其是那些在快乐氛围中的公司会做更多的研发以及发展。因为快乐与对未来投资有必要的长远考虑相联系。这是因为对未来进行投资需要作出长远决策,而这种决策与快乐相关。

研究者希望了解乐观精神和随快乐而来的冒险精神是否会改变公司投资的方式。因此,他们把盖洛普咨询公司所评估出的美国城市平均幸福指数与该地区的上市公司投资活跃度进行对比。

足以肯定的是,公司投资和研发力度与公司总部所在地的幸福指数相关。但是幸福真的与投资相关吗?或者说幸福指数更高的城市的其他方面能够说明公司为何加大研发投入。为了弄清这一点,研究者掌握了多种可能促使公司投资的因素,例如规模,产业,销售,也掌握了各种指标,如适宜居住地,工资涨幅及人口变化。了解这些问题后,幸福与投资的关系就能够轻松得出了。

幸福与投资之间的关系尤其适用于新公司,这是因为新公司所做决定会偏草率,而且年轻的新经理决策时更容易受情绪影响。同样,这种关系在员工幸福指数相同的公司尤为明显。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快乐的员工所在的部门,而不是那些不快乐的部门。

然而这并不证明是幸福导致公司大量投资,或者从长远的角度来讲,研究人员认为至少它预示着这种可能性。不难想象,本地文化以及情感有助于影响高管对于未来的看法。“快乐的人比普通人有预见性、创造力、更善于研发这种说法似乎更可信。”一位研究者说。

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