跨考教育

跨考教育

当前位置: 跨考网 > 公共课 > 英语 > 真题 > 正文

2016考研英语一真题

来源: 跨考教育

2015-12-28 12:27:39

手机考研网

收藏本文

Section 1 Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1__those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__ a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3__the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may take the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. __4__, a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5__ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.

The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Par--ts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting,__9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists, and __10__a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__. Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife's parents and may__12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.

Divorce is legal and easy to __14__, but not common. Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. The divorced male doesn't have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__the woman must wait ten months.

1. A. by way of B. with regard to C. on behalf of D. as well as

2. A. decide on B. provide for C. compete with D. adapt to

3. A. close B. arrange C. renew D. postpone

4. A. In theory B. Above all C. In time D. For example

5. A. Unless B. Less C. After D. Although

6. A. into B. within C. from D. through

7. A. or B. since C. but D. so

8. A. test B. copy C. recite D. create

9. A. folding B. piling C. wrapping D. tying

10. A. passing B. lighting C. hiding D. serving

11. A. association B. meeting C. collection D. union

12. A. deal B. part C. grow D. live

13. A. whereas B. until C. for D. if

14. A. avoid B. follow C. challenge D. obtain

15. A. isolated B. persuaded C. viewed D. exposed

16. A. wherever B. whatever C. whenever D. however

17. A. changed B. brought C. shaped D. pushed

18. A. invested B. divided C. donated D. withdrawn

19. A. warms B. clears C. shows D. breaks

20. A. while B. so that C. once D. in that

 

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text1

France,which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways. The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death –as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.

The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep-and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states:”We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people”. The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week (CFW), which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and -shame method of compliance.

Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

21. According to the first paragraph,what would happen in France?

【A】Physical beauty would be redefined.

【B】New runways would be constructed.

【C】Websites about dieting would thrive.

【D】The fashion industry would decline.

22. The phrase “impinging on”(Line 2,Para.2) is closest in meaning to

【A】heightening the value of

【B】indicating the state of

【C】losing faith in

【D】doing harm to

23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?

【A】The French measures have already failed.

【B】New standards are being set in Denmark.

【C】Models are no longer under peer pressure.

【D】Its inherent problems are getting worse.

24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for

【A】pursuing perfect physical conditions

【B】caring too much about model’s character.

【C】showing little concern for health factors

【D】setting a high age threshold for models.

25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?

【A】A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

【B】A Dilemma for the Starving models in France

【C】Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty

【D】The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry

 

Text 2

For the first time in history more people live in towns than in the country. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate”the countryside”alongside the royal family, Shakespeare and the National Health Serivce (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.

A century ago Octavia Hill Launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save“the beauty of natural places for everyone forever”. It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience“a refreshing air .”Hill’s pressure later led to creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more,and every year concrete consumes more of it . It needs constant guardianship.

At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives’planning reform explicitly gives rural development priority over conservation, even authorising“off-plan”building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance,has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local conservative parties.

The sensible place to build new houses,factories and offices is where people are,in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone,with no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.

The idea that”housing crisis”equals“concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more houses but, as always,where to put them. Under lobby pressure,George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against high streets . This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have grown and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban Development should be planned, not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowed country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. There is no doubt of the alternative --- the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal, Spain or Ireland. Avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite the left and right of the political spectrum.

26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside

[A] has brought much benefit to the NHS.

[B] didn’t start till the Shakespearean age.

[C] is fully backed by the royal family.

[D] is not well reflected in politics.

27. According to Paragraph 2,the achievements of the National Trust are now being

[A] gradually destroyed.

[B] effectively reinforced.

[C] properly protected.

[D] largely overshadowed.

28. which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 3?

[A] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation.

[B] the Conservatives may abandon ”off -plan“ building.

[C] the Liberal Democrats are losing political influence.

[D] labour is under attack for opposing development.

29. the author holds that George Osborne’s preference

[A] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas.

[B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas.

[C] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis.

[D] highlights his firm stand against lobby pressure.

30. In the last paragraph,the author shows his appreciation of

[A] the size of population in Britain.

[B the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain.

[C] the town-and-country planning in Britain.

[D] the political life in today is Britain.

 

TEXT3

“There is on and only one social responsibility of business,” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize-winning economist, “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Friedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’ money, things may not be absolutely clear-cut. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies-at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.

The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.

Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. Al recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect.

The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties,. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firm’s political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.

In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern , such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving byabout20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials”, says one researcher.

Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. But at least they have demonstrated that when companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them less costly punishment.

31.The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with

【A】tolerance.

【B】skepticism.

【C】uncertainty.

【D】approval.

32.According to Paragraph 2,CSR helps a company by

【A】winning trust from consumers.

【B】guarding it against malpractices.

【C】protecting it from being defamed.

【D】raising the quality of its products.

33. The expression “more lenient ”(line 2,para.4)is closest in meaning to

【A】more effective

【B】less controversial

【C】less severe

【D】more lasting

34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company’s CSR regard

【A】has an impact on their decision

【B】comes across as reliable evidence

【C】increases the chance of being penalized

【D】constitutes part of the investigation

35.Which of the following is true of CSR, according to the last paragraph?

【A】 Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked.

【B】 The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown.

【C】 Companies’ financial capacity for it has been overestimated.

【D】 It has brought much benefit to the banking industry.

 

Text 4

There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. “Sometime in the future”, the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.

Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper — printing presses, delivery trucks — isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print away. And though print ad sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining.

Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Joah Peretti.

Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about doing it the right way.” Fighting out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense of them,” he said, “but if you discontinue it, you’re going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”

Sometimes that’s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example seen as a blunder,” he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”

The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. “So if you’re overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,”Peretti said. “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.”In other words, if you’re going to make a print product ,make it for the people who are already obsessed with it. Which way be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs $500 a year — more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription.

“It’s a really hard thing to do and it’s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn’t have a legacy business,”Peretti remarked. “But we’re going to have questions like that where we have things we’re doing that don’t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it’s better to be more aggressive than less aggressive. ”

36.The New York Times is considering ending its print edition partly due to

[A]the pressure from its investors.

[B]the complaints from its readers.

[C]the high cost of operation.

[D]the increasing online ad sales.

37. Peretti suggests that, in face of the present situation, the Times should

[A]make strategic adjustments

[B]end the print edition for good.

[C]seek new sources of readership.

[D]aim for efficient management.

38. It can be inferred form Paragraphs 5 and 6 that a “legacy product”

[A]will have the cost of printing reduced.

[B]is meant for the most loyal customers.

[C]helps restore the glory of former times.

[D]expands the popularity of the paper.

39. Peretti believes that, in a changing world,

[A]traditional luxuries can stay unaffected.

[B]aggressiveness better meets challenges.

[C]cautiousness facilitates problem-solving.

[D]legacy businesses are becoming outdated.

40. Which of the following would be the best title of the text?

[A]Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good.

[B]Keep Your Newspapers Forever in Fashion.

[C]Cherish the Newspaper Still in Your Hand.

[D]Shift to Online Newspapers All at Once.

 

Part B

Directions:

In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A]Create a new image of yourself

[B]Decide if the time is right

[C]Have confidence in yourself

[D]Understand the context

[E]Work with professionals

[F]Know your goals

[G]Make it efficient

No matter how formal or informa the work environment,the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in first impressions. According to research from Princeton University,people assess your competence,trustworthiness,and likeability in just a tenth of a second,solely based on the way you look.

The difference between today’s workplace and the“dress for success” era is that the range of options is so much broader. Norms have evolved and fragmented. In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in others not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials, it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing.

So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what’s the best way to pull off one that enhance our goals? Here are some tips;

41.

As an executive coach, I’ve seen image upgrades be particularly helpful during transitions---when looking for a new job, stepping into a new or more public role, or changing work environments. If you’re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. If you’re not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals. Look for cues about how others perceive you.Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK.

42. Get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more“SoHo”.(It’s OK to use characterizations like that.)

43.

Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What converys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you understand the cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.

44.

Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like J.Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It’s not as expensive as you might think.

45.

The point of a style upgrade isn’t to become more vain or to spend more time passing over what to wear. Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. Pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to options. Buy all your clothes once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time.

 

Part C

Translation

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration -one of the great folk wanderings of history-swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.

47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American.

49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on meager rations. Many of the ships were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes tempests blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought interminable delay.

To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief. Said one chronicler, "The air at twelve leagues' distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden." The colonists' first glimpse of the new land was a vista of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.

 

Section III Writing

Part A

Directions:

Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.

You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET.

Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead.

Do not write the address .(10 points)

 

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should

1. describe the pictures briefly,

2. interpret its intended meaning, and

3. give your comments.

You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)

What is symbolically depicted in the caricatures, there emerge two circumstances, carrying sharp contrast implications. In the first drawing, a father is watching a football match on the sofa who is at the same time supervising his son to finish homework. It is not difficult to observe that his son wears frowned expression on his face. On the contrary, the second portrayal depicts a father is working just besides his son, who is doing his assignment.

The objective of the drawer is to demonstrate that utmost significance should be attached to the phenomenon that setting proper examples has exerted great impact on the growth of the younger generation in China at present. Previously, it is widely acknowledged that it is the compelling obligation for the parents to help their kids to form an appropriate value about the world and the life, which carries overwhelmingly precious connotation to the sound development on the younger generation. Simultaneously, there is no denying that the most rational method for adults to educate their adolescents is to set themselves a good example to their teenagers rather than making perpetual requirements, which is less persuasive compared with the actions.

Accordingly, it is vital for us to derive positive implication from these thought-provoking drawings. On the one hand, we can frequently use them to enlighten the parents to be more advisable in educate their children. On the other hand, parents should attach more emphasis on setting excellent models for their juveniles. Only by doing so, can we effectively ensure a promising prospect for the adolescents.

分享到:

相关推荐

跨考网| 研招网| 考研信息网| 关于我们| 加入我们| 联系我们 | 网站导航

跨考手机考研网:http://m.kuakao.com/ 考研从未如此简单

Copyright@2004-2014 www.kuakao.com All Right Reserived 京 ICP备11041699号-3

版权所有:北京尚学硕博教育咨询有限公司

 

公共课保分班

400-883-2220