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2015年考研英语阅读文章练习之历史学类(1)

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2014-10-17 15:24:02

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  The establishment of the Third Reich influenced events in American history by starting a chain of events which culminated in war between Germany and the United States. The compete destruction of democracy, the persecution of Jews, the war on religion, the cruelty and barbarism of the Nazis, and especially the plans of Germany and her allies, Italy and Japan, for world conquest caused great indignation in this country and brought on fear of another world war. While speaking out against Hitler‘s atrocities, the American people generally favored isolationist policies and neutrality. The Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936 prohibited trade with any belligerents or loans to them. In 1937 the President was empowered to declare an arms embargo in wars between nations at his discretion.

  American opinion began to change somewhat after President Roosevelt‘s “quarantine the aggressor” speech at Chicago (1937) in which he severely criticized Hitler’s policies. Germany‘s seizure of Austria and the Munich Pact for the partition of Czechoslovakia (1938) also aroused the American people. The conquest of Czechoslovakia in March, 1939 was another rude awakening to the menace of the Third Reich. In August,1939 came the shock of the Nazi-soviet Pact and in September the attack on Poland and the outbreak of European war. The United States attempted to maintain neutrality in spite of sympathy for the democracies arrayed against the Third Reich. The Neutrality Act of 1939 repealed the arms embargo and permitted “cash and carry” exports of arms to belligerent nations. A strong national defense program was begun. A draft act was passed (1940) to strengthen the military services. A Lend Act (1941) authorized the President to sell, exchange, or lend materials to any country deemed necessary by him for the defense of the United States. Help was given to Britain by exchanging certain overage destroyers for the right to establish American bases in British territory in the Western Hemisphere. In August, 1940 President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill met and issued the Atlantic Charter which proclaimed the kind of a world which should be established after the war. In December, 1941, Japan launched the unprovoked attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor. Immediately thereafter, Germany declared war on the United States.

  1.One item occurring before 1937 that the author does not mention in his list of actions that alienated the American public was

  [A] the burning of the Reichstag.

  [B] German plans for conquest.

  [C] Nazi barbarism.

  [D] the persecution of religious groups.

  2.The Lend-Lease Act was designed to

  [A] help the British.

  [B] strengthen the national defense of the United States.

  [C] promote the Atlantic Charter.

  [D] avenge Pearl Harbor.

  3.American Policy during the years 1935-1936 may be described as being

  [A] watchful.

  [B] isolationist.

  [C] peaceful.

  [D] indifferent.

  4.The Neutrality Act of 1939

  [A] permitted the selling of arms to belligerent nations.

  [B] antagonized Japan.

  [C] permitted the British to trade only with the Allies.

  [D] led to Lend-Lease Act.

  5.We entered the war against Germany

  [A] because Germany declared war.

  [B] because Japan was an ally of Germany.

  [C] after Germany had signed the Nazi-soviet Pact.

  [D] after peaceful efforts had failed.

  写作方法与文章大意

  文章讲述了第三帝国成立,美国由中立到宣战的一段历史。采用按年代先后进行叙述的写作手法。文章一开始就点明主题:“第三帝国的成立影响了美国历史,从一系列事情开始,最终导致德国和美国交战。”

  答案详解

  1. A帝国大厦焚毁,众所周知,这是纳粹希特勒精心策划的一次政治阴谋,旨在迫害德国共产党。B. 德国征服计划。C. 纳粹之残暴。D. 迫害宗教团体。在文中都提到。见第一段第二句“民主的全面摧毁、对犹太人的迫害、摧残宗教、纳粹的残忍和野蛮,特别是德国及其盟国意、日、征服世界的计划激起美国极大愤怒,也带来了对又一次世界大战的恐惧。”

  2. B 加强美国国防。见第二段导数第五句“1941年的租借法规定:总统对他认为保卫美国所需要的国家有权卖给、交换或借给他们物资。”A. 帮助英国,不对。C. 促进大西洋公约。大西洋公约是1941年8月,罗斯福和邱吉尔会面后的联合公告。D. 报复珍珠港。是1941年日本发起袭击的报复。

  3. B 与世隔绝。这在第一段第三句“美国人民虽然反对希特勒的凶残等事,他们一般还是喜欢孤立(与世隔绝的)政策和保持中立。1933年和1936年的中立条约规定:禁止和交战国双方贸易和借贷。”A. 观察的。C. 和平的。D. 不正确的。

  4. A 允许把武器卖给交战国。答案在第二段第六句“1939年的中立条约取消了武器禁运,允许进行现钞交易出口武器给交战国。”B. 和日本敌对。C. 允许英国只能和其盟国贸易。D. 导致租借条约。

  5. A 因为德国宣战。这在第一段已有说明。尽管希特勒坏事做尽,美国还是倾向于中立政策。第二段罗斯福在芝加哥的演讲,态度稍有改变。严厉批评希特勒的政策,但仍然以中立为主。1941年日本袭击珍珠港,不久德国宣战,美国才不得不参战。

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