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2015考研英语十二大基础语法体系:定语从句

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2014-07-31 14:24:59

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2015考研英语十二大基础语法体系

  七、定语从句

  所谓从句,就是一个主谓结构相当于整个句子(这样的句子叫复合句)的一个成分,因此,从句不能单独使用。在复合句中修饰名词或代词、作定语的句子叫定语从句。定语从句是中国人学英语最重要的难点之一。

  其实定语从句很有规律,总结如下:在关系代词中that既可指人又可指物、既可作主语又可作宾语,因此,除了在非限定性定语从句中,用that一般不会出问题。

  关系副词的用法比较单一,它们从句中只起状语的作用,表示时间的就用who门,表示地点的就用where,而why只修饰一个词,即reason。

  定语从句所修饰的词叫“先行词”,因为它总是处在定语从句的前头,比定语从句先行一步。

  引导定语从句的词叫关系词,包括关系代词和关系副词。

  关系代词:

  who,which,that作从句的主语

  whom,which,that作从句的宾语(可省略)

  whose从句中作定语

  以下情况只能用that,不能用which:

  i. 先行词为不定代词all, little, none,any,every,no,much, anything, nothing

  ii. 先行词有最高级和序数词修饰时(包括: the only, the very, the same, the last, the next等)

  iii. 先行词既有人又有物的时候

  以下情况只能用which,不能用that;

  ① 引导非限制性定语从句(包括代表整个主句的意思时)

  ② 介词+关系代词的结构中

  关系副词:

  when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语

  where指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语

  why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语,只修饰reason。

  如果用定语从句把两个句子合二为一:首先找出两个句子当中相同的部分,定语从句修饰的就是这一部分。要把其中一个句子变成定语从句,就要把这句中相同的那个部分用一个关系词来代替;代替时,先看被代替的部分是指人还是指物、再看它作什么句成分。指人并作主语的,就用who。或that;指人并作宾语的,就用whom或that;指人并作定语的,就用whose。指物并作主语的,就用which或that认指物并作宾语的,还是用which或that认是物并作定语的,就用whose或of which。这样找好并替换以后,再把这个关系代词放到要变成定语从句的那个句子的最前面(被代替的部分不能再保留,其它的词语一律不变),这个句子就变成了定语从句。然后,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,最后,如果还有其它句子成分,就把它们放到定语从句的后面,就行了。

  例如:

  Have you found the book? You were looking for the book yesterday.

  在这两个句子中,the book是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the book。把后面这一句变成定语从句,找个关系词来代替the book;在将要被变成定语从句的名子中,the book是物并作宾语,所以用which或that代替它。

  然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"that/which you were looking for yesterday?”,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“have you found the book that/which you were looking for yesterday?”定语从句就完成了,主句是问句,所以句末用问号。that/which代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们仍然作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“have you found the book you were looking for yesterday?”.

  关系副词与此同理。只是关系副词代替的是原句中的状语。在被代替

  之前,这个状语中一定要含有一个与另一句相同的成分。

  例如:This is the house甲I was barn and brought up in the house.在这两个句子中,in the house是句子里的地点状语,定语从句修饰的就是the house。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,in the house是地点状语,所以用where来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"where}was barn and brought up"。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了"This is the house where I was barn and brought up.”,

  定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。Where代替的是原句中的状语,原句变成了从句,它就作从句的状语。

  (4) The hotel is an artistic building. We' ll stay in it.

  ……The hotel where we' 11 stay is an artistic building.

  ……The hotel (which/that) we' 11 stay in is an artistic building.

  ……The hotel in which we' 11 stay is an artistic building.

  (5) Perhaps they' ve heard of the place. We went there for our holidays last time.

  ……Perhaps they' re heard of the place where we went for our holidays last time.

  定语从句

  请大家照上面的例子,把下面变定语从句的步骤说出来(括号里的可以省略):

  (6)They’re redecorating the room. A conference will be held in the room.

  →They’re redecorating the room where a conference will be held.

  →They’re redecorating the room (which /that) a conference will be held in.

  →They’re redecorating the room in which a conference will be held.

  那么,“介词+关系代词”是怎么回事呢?原来上面这个例句,还有一种做法:This is the house. I was born and brought up in the house.在这两个句子中,the house是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the house 。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,the house表示物而且是介词in的宾语,所以用关系代词which或that来代替。然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,后面这一句就成了 “which/that I was born and brought up in”。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“This is the house which/that I was born and brought up in”。定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。

  which/that代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们就作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“This is the house I was born and brought up in.”

  但是,in可以提到关系代词的前面,不过这时不能用that,而且不能省略。所以上句又可变为“This is the house in which I was born and brought up.”这就是“介词+关系代词”的来历。

  定语从句又分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句把它的先行词限定在特定的意义之内,对先行词起限定的作用、是先行词必不可少的修饰语,没有它,整个句子的意思就会受到影响、就不完整。非限定性定语从句不对先行词起限定的作用,不是先行词必不可少的修饰语,只对先行词起补充说明的作用,没有它,整个句子的意思不会受到影响、仍然完整。非限定性定语从句相当于一个分句,翻译时也是把它当作分句处理的。非限定性定语从句和它的先行词之间要用逗号隔开;而限定性定语从句和它的先行词之间不能用逗号隔开。非限定性定语从句中除了不用that以外,其它关系词都可使用,使用方法与限定性定语从句一样。

  例如:The supermarket which was opened two months ago is now closed down.

  两个月前开的那家超市现在已经倒闭了。(限定)

  The supermarket, which was opened two months ago, is now closed down.

  那家超市现在已经倒闭了,那家超市两个月前开的。(非限定)

  The book(which) you’re reading is mine .

  你正在读的那本书是我的。(限定)

  The book, which you’re reading, is mine.

  那本书是我的,你正在读那本书。(非限定)

  如果以上例子的差别不十分明显,再看下面的例句:

  I’ve been to London , which is a beautiful city。

  我去过伦敦,那是个美丽的城市。

  Your father, whom I respect very much, is a kind old man.

  你父亲是个很和善的老头,我很尊重他。

  Nanjing, where I lived for five years, is very hot in summer.

  南京夏天非常热,我在那里生活过五年。

  在以上三例当中,定语从句不就能是限定性的。若变成限定性定语从句,其意就成了“我去过那个是座美丽的城市的伦敦。你那个我很尊重的父亲是个很和善的老头。我在那里生活过五年的南京夏天非常热。”言外之意是还有别的伦敦、父亲和南京。

  通过这几个例子我们可以看出,专用名词以及世界上独一无二的东西都不能有限定性定语从句。因为它们的意义本身已经非常清楚,不需要对其进行限定。另外,非限定性定语从句的先行词还可以是整个主句所表达的意义。

  如:He did well in the physics exam, which surprised me.

  他物理考得很好,这使我很吃惊。

  (学地道的英语有两个重要的练习方法:parallel writing, and reverse translation,即平行写作和逆翻译。所谓平行写作,就是模仿英语的句子写类似的句子。而逆翻译就是先把英语译成汉语,或根据汉语的译文,再把汉语翻译成英语,再把英语译文同原文比较,分析差异。这两种方法能避免汉语式英语。)

  He did well in the physics exam, which surprised me.

  他物理考得很好,这使我很吃惊。

  请把这句话逆翻译。有的同学会翻译为:He did well in the physics exam, this surprised me. 这句话错在什么地方呢?错在句法。这句话有两个主谓结构,是两个并列的分句,但没有连词(this 是代词),这就成了串句。

  再如:He’s very particular about wording, which I am not.

  他很咬文嚼字,而我不。

  I said nothing, which made her angry.

  我什么也没说,这使她很生气。

  Tom didn’t go to the show, which was a pity.

  没去看演出,这很遗憾。

  注意各个关系词的用法:

  1.指人的关系代词:who, whom, whose, that 的用法:

  (1)作主语(who, that )

  Those who are going to play in the match are to meet at the gate at 1:30 after lunch.

  那些参加比赛的人午饭后1:30在大门口集合。

  在本句中,先行词是those;关系代词who引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词are going to play 的主语。

  The man who/that is talking with Mr. Wang is a famous doctor.

  正在和王先生说话的那个人是一个有名的医生。

  在本句中,先行词是the man;关系代词who/that引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词is talking的主语。

  这个复合句可以还原成两个句子:The man is a famous doctor. He is talking with Mr. Wang.

  (2)作宾语包括作介词宾语(whom, that )。此种情况下的关系代词可以省略;

  This is just the man(whom/that) I want for the job.这正是我要的做这份工作的人。

  在本句中,先行词是the man;关系代词whom/that 引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词want 的宾语。

  Is he the manager (whom/that) you are looking for?

  他是你在找的那位经理吗?

  (3)当关系代词紧跟介词作介词宾语时,不能用that,也不能省略,

  如:The book from which I got a lot of useful information was written by a famous scientist.

  我从中得到许多有用信息的那本书是一位著名科学家写的。

  Who is the boy with whom you were talking a moment ago.

  你刚才和他说话的那个男孩是谁?

  I know the young couple from whose house the music is coming.

  但是当介词放在从句末尾时,作为介词宾语的关系代词可以用that 并且可以省略。

  如上头两句可改为:

  The book (that /which) I got a lot of information from was written by a famous scientist.

  Who is the boy (that/whom) you were talking with a moment ago?

  2.指物的关系代词which和that的用法:

  (1)作主语

  This is the instruction manual which/that tells you how to operate the computer.

  这是那本教你如何操作计算机的说明手册。

  (2)作宾语包括作介词宾馆。此种情况下的关系代词可以省略:

  The chair (which /that) you broke yesterday is now being repaired.

  你昨天弄坏的那把椅子现在正在修理。

  The film (which/that) I saw last night was about a soldier who fought in WWII.

  我昨天晚上看的那部电影是关于一个在二战中打过仗的士兵的。

  (本句有两个定语从句。)

  This is the bike for which I paid $ 100.

  这就是我花了100美元买的那辆自行车。

  The car(which/that)he went in was a black Cadillac.

  他坐在里面走了的那辆汽车是一辆黑色的卡迪拉克。

  The accounts of the company, (which/that) I’ve been paying great attention to, are in balance.

  我一直非常注意的公司账目,是保持平衡的。

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