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2015考研英语十二大基础语法体系:倒装句

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2014-07-31 14:34:00

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2015考研英语十二大基础语法体系

  十、倒装句

  英语句子的语序一般是固定的:主语在前,谓语在后,这叫陈述语序。谓语的全部或一部分(助动词或情态动词)放在主语之前的现象称为倒装。倒装有两种情况:语法倒装和修辞倒装。因为语法结构而必须倒装的,叫语法倒装;为达到某种修辞目的而倒装的,叫修辞倒装。我们学习倒装的主要目的是增加对英语句式多样性的认识,以便在写作和口语中使用,这也是我们学习英语语法的主要目的。

  (一)语法倒装

  1.一般疑问句和特殊疑问句要倒装

  例如:

  Shall I open the door? 要我开门吗?

  Are you cold? 你冷吗?

  Can you read this poem in German? 你能用德语朗诵这首诗吗?

  Which of the pictures do you like best? 你最喜欢哪张画?

  How are you getting along? 你目前怎么样?

  When will there be lasting peace in the world?

  什么时候世界上才能有持久的和平?

  2.There be 句型当中。There be 句型表达的意思是:“某处有….”。这个句型的主语在谓语动词后面,因此这是倒装语序。

  例如:

  There are not many people who want to read this book.

  想看这本书的人不多。

  There once lived a pack of wolves in this cave.

  在这个洞里曾经住过一群狼。

  There happened to be a taxi parked at the gate.

  碰巧门口停着一辆出租车。

  There is going to be a change in our arrangement.

  我们的安排将有一个变化。

  3.当连词as 表示“虽然、尽管”引导让步状语从句时,句子要倒装,as 相当于though,可以替换。

  如:

  Small as/though the atom is, we can smash it.

  尽管原子很小,我们可以击碎它。

  Tired as/though he was, he went on working.

  (=Although he was very tired, he went on working.)

  虽然他很累,他还是接着工作。

  Cold as/though it was, we went out. 虽然天气冷,我们还是出去了。

  Child as/though she is, she knows a great deal.

  她虽然是个孩子,但她懂得很多。

  Teacher as he is, he knows little about teaching.

  尽管他是个老师,但不懂什么教学。

  Pilots as he claims he is, no one has ever seen him fly a plane.

  尽管他声称是个飞行员,但谁也没见过他非飞机。

  注意后四句是可数名词单数作表语并提前,习惯上不用冠词。

  4.虚拟语气条件从句中的if 被省略时,要把从句中的were, had 或should 移到主语之前。(if 的省略、倒装只限于从句中有were, had 或should这三个词时。)

  例如:

  If I had been in your place, I wouldn’t have given it up so early.

  =Had I been in your place, I wouldn’t have given it up so early.

  如果我在你的位置,我不会这样早放弃。

  If he were to succeed, the sun would rise from the west.

  =Were he to succeed, the sun….

  如果他能成功,太阳就会从西边出来。

  If you should be asked about this, say that you know nothing.

  =Should you be asked about this, say……

  如果有人问起你这件事,你就说你什么也不知道。

  Were there no air or water, there would be no life on the earth.

  如果没有空气和水,地球上就不会有生命。

  Had you been more careful, you might have avoided the mistake.

  如果你再细心点,本来事可以避免这个错误的。

  5.以so开头的,表示“也一样”,“也这样”的句子要倒装。So 用于肯定句,代替上文中的形容词、名词或动词,通常指前面所说的肯定情况也适用于其他人或物。结构是“so + be (do, have 其他助动词或情态动词)+主语”。

  如:

  Production is going up, so is the people’s standard of living.

  生产不断发展,人们的生活水平也一样。

  Society has changed and so have the people in it. 社会变了,

  社会上的人也变了。

  Coal is under the ground, and so is oil. 煤在地底下,石油也是。

  He saw it, and so did I. 他看见了,我也看见了。

  They can swim now, and so can we. 他们现在能游泳,我们也能。

  We must start for the work-site now. So must you.

  我们该动身去工地了,你们也该去了。

  注意:如果只是对前句的内容表示同意,则不要倒装。

  如:

  It was hot yesterday. ?So it was! 昨天很热。是的。

  He works very hard. ?So he does. 他工作很努力。是的。

  Tomorrow will be Monday. ?So it will. 明天星期一。对。

  翻译下列句子:

  1)我会说英语。我弟弟也会。

  →I can speak English. So can my brother.

  2)他们上星期日到颐和园去了。我们也去了。

  →They went to the Summer Palace last Sunday. So did we.

  3)他去过长城。我也去过。

  →He has been to the Great Wall. So have I.

  4)她喜欢教英语。我姐姐也喜欢。

  →She enjoys teaching English. So does my sister.

  5)你说他很努力,对,他确实很努力,你也一样。

  →You say he works hard. So he does, and so do you.

  注意:在so…..that…..结构中,如果so 在句首,通常也用倒装结构。

  例如:

  So easy is it that a boy can learn it.

  那很容易,小孩子都能学。

  (原句是:It is so easy that a boy can learn it.)

  So rapidly did he speak that we could hardly understand him clearly. 他说得很快,我们简直听不清楚。

  (原句是:He spoke so rapidly that we could hardly understand him clearly.)

  6.以neither与nor开头的句子,表示“…也不”时,句子倒装。Neither 与nor 意思相同,可以互换。Neither, nor 用于否定句,通常指前面所说的否定情况也适用于其他人或物。结构是:Neither (nor) + be (do, have, 其他助动词或情态动词) +主语。

  例如:

  I won’t do such a thing. Nor/Neither will anyone else.

  我不会做这样的事,别人也不会。

  The first one wasn’t good and neither was the second.

  第一个不好,第二个也不好。

  I won’t go there. Neither will she.

  我将不去那里。她也不去。

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