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情态动词will、would、ought辨析

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2015-05-26 16:36:01

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情态动词will、would、ought辨析

  情态动词Will

  可用于各人称,表示“意志”、“意愿”、“决心”、“允诺”等。如:

  I will try.我愿一试。

  I will do my best.我一定尽力而为。

  We will never do it again.我们永远不会再做此事了。

  Which will you fake?你要哪一个?

  Who will go with me?谁愿和我一同去?

  will在疑问句中用子第二人称时

  这时句子表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问。如:

  Will you please explain the sentence once more?请你再把这个句子解释一遍好吗?

  Will you have western food or Chinese food,Mr. Smith?史密斯先生,你吃西餐还是中餐?

  Will you pass me the butter?请你把黄油递给我好吗?

  注意下面句中的won't亦表请求:

  Won't you come in ?请进来好吗?

  注一:在条件状语从句中须用现在一般时表将来,但当will用作情态动词表意愿时,则亦可用于条件状语从句,如I'll be glad if you will come.(你如愿来,我将会很高兴)。

  注二:will在下面句子中= I suppose(我猜想)或probably(大概)。如:

  This will be the room you are looking for.这大概就是你要找的那个房间。

  You will remember the story I told you the other day.你们大概还记得我那天给你们讲的那个故事。

  注三:will有时表示一种习惯动作或状态。如:

  Water will boil at 100 degrees Centigrade.水总是在摄氏100度煮沸。

  Boys will be boys.男孩子总是男孩子。

  情态动词——would

  Would

  是will的过去式,可用于各人称,表示过去时间的“意志”、“愿望”和“决心”等。如:

  He declared that he would do everything to help us.他说要尽一切可能来帮助我们。

  I told peter that I would go along wit him.我告诉彼得我要跟他一块去。

  All in e doctors and nurses told Dr. Bethune not to give his own blood to the wounded, but he wouldn't listen.和护士劝白求恩大夫不要把自己的血输给伤员,但是他不听。

  would用来表示现在时间时

  这时would不论是表达说话人本身的意志或向对方提出请求,均较will婉转。如:

  Would you tell us something about yourself?请跟我们谈谈你自己好吗?

  Would you like to have a glass of wine?你要喝杯酒吗?

  Would you please tell me the way to the nearest bus-stop?请告诉我去最近的公共汽车站怎么走好吗?

  Would you mind helping me with my packing?请你帮我打打行李好吗?

  注:在日常会话中,I would like to和I should like to都可以说,I would like的简略式为I'd like.如:

  I should (would) like to have a look at the new television set.我想看看这架新电视机。

  I'd like to borrow a copy of Alice in Wonderland.我要借一本《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》。

  Would还可以表示过去习惯发生的动作

  I found that retired persons would often go to the park to play chess.我发现退休的人经常到公园里下棋。

  When he had a problem to solve,he would work at it until he found an answer.当他有个问题要解决时,他总是想办法一直到找到答案为止。

  情态动词——ought

  ought

  ought只有一种形式,后面须跟带to的动词不定式。Ought表示“有义务或必要”做某件事,还可表示“劝告”。如:。

  You ought to follow the old man's advice.你应当听那位老人的话。

  You oughtn't to smoke so much.你不应当抽烟太多。

  You ought to go to the clinic at once. You don't look well.你脸色不好,应该马上到医务室去。

  注:ought表示“应该”,语气比should强。

  ought后加动词不定式的完成式时

  指过去的动作。如用肯定形式(ought to have done),表示某一件事该做而未做,相当于should have done.如用否定形式(ought not to have done),则表示一件不该做的事情发生了,相当于should not have done.如:

  He ought to have done the exercise more carefully.这个练习他应当作得更细心一些。

  I ought to have returned these books to the library last week.我上星期就应当把这些书还给图书馆。

  You ought not to have been so rude.你不该这样粗鲁。

  You ought not to have taken his skates without asking him.你不该没有得到他的许可就把他的冰鞋拿走。

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