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跨考版:2015年考研英语一阅读真题及答案

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2014-12-28 17:51:59

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  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep. But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?

  The Spanish case previous arguments both for and against monarchy when public opinion is particularly. Polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.

  It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of states. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region is the world, with 10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respect public figure.

  Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Prince and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

  While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

  It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-healed) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service—as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

  21、according to the first two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span

  [A] used to enjoy high public support

  [B] was unpopular among European royals

  [C] ended his reign in embarrassment

  [D] eased his relationship with his rivals

  22、monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

  [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

  [B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

  [C] to give voters more public figures to look up to

  [D] due to their everlasting political embodiment

  23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

  [A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth.

  [B] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families.

  [C] The role of the nobility in modern democracies.

  [D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges.

  24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

  [A] takes a tough line on political issues.

  [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised.

  [C] takes republicans as his potential allies.

  [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role.

  25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

  [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

  [B] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

  [C] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

  [D] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

  答案解析:

  21 D ended his reign in embarrassment

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词King Juan Carlos of Spain 定位到第一段第一和第二句。But embarrassing scandals…have forced him to eat his words and stand down. 此处stand down译为放弃席位。因此D ended his reign in embarrassment是原文内容的同义替换。

  22 A owing to their undoubted and respectable status

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词定位到第三段第一句it is this apparent …that explains …as heads of state.和第三句But unlike their absolutist…most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for ...respected public figure. 绝大多数皇室家族使得选民避免了寻找受人尊敬的公众人物的麻烦。因此A owing to their undoubted and respectable status是原文内容的同义替换。

  23 B the role of the nobility in modern democracies

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词定位到第四段最后一句话…it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states 奇怪的是有钱的贵族家庭仍然处于现代民主国家的核心地位。因此B the role of the nobility in modern democracies是原文内容的同义替换。

  24 B fails to change his lifestyle as advised

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词”have most of fear”定位到第六段,Charles定位到最后一段的地二句Charles 后面who引导定语从句who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and …world因此B fails to change his lifestyle as advised是原文内容的同义替换。

  25 C Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs

  此题属于全文主旨题。

  着眼全文,通篇都在围绕monarchs展开。第一段由Carlos引出当今君主制面临的危机。因此Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs是全文内容的精确概括。

  Text 2

  Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

  California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

  The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

  They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone-- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

  But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

  26. The Supreme Court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

  [A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant.

  [B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized.

  [C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

  [D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

  27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

  [A] tolerance.

  [B] indifference.

  [C] disapproval.

  [D] cautiousness.

  28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable to

  [A] getting into one’s residence.

  [B] handing one’s historical records.

  [C] scanning one’s correspondences.

  [D] going through one’s wallet.

  29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

  [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

  [B] the court is giving police less room for action.

  [C] phones are used to store sensitive information.

  [D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected.

  30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

  (A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

  (B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

  (C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.

  (D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.

  T2答案解析:

  26 答案B check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized

  解析:细节题。根据自然段定位原则,定位到首段。根据题干关键词supreme court,whether精确定位到第一段最后一句whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone….,与选项进行对应,即为B在不授权的情况下检查嫌疑人的电话信息。注意A选项应是search contents。

  27 答案 C disapproval

  解析:态度题。根据题干California’s argument定位到第二段最后一句及第三段首句,这些句子中提到hard… recklessly modest…等负向词,表达的是负面态度。看选项属于负面的就是disapproval。A 容忍,B冷漠是典型错误,D粗心。

  28 答案A getting into one’s residence

  解析:细节题。题干问:作者认为搜索电话薄就相当于什么?根据段落界定原则定位到第四段转折处,提到But exploring one’s smart phone is more like entering his or her home.与选项对应,A中的residence对应home,是原文的同意替换。注意D选项不是作者的观点,不能将文中人物观点当作作者观点。

  29 答案D citizens’ privacy is not effective protected

  解析:细节题。根据题干定位到5段和6段,题干问作者最关注的是什么,即是相应段落的段落中心。因此,该题表面是细节题,实质为段落核心。5段首句为中心句提到,应采取措施保护数据隐私;6段又继续陈述原则的不恰当之处。根据这些内容,对应答案D 市民隐私未能得到有效保护。

  30 答案 B New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution

  解析:例证题。题干问的是引用Orin Kerr的目的是什么,即Orin Kerr是论据,其目的是论点。论点往往在论据的前面,所以要找例子前面的一句话,即New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections.与选项对应,就是B new technology是原词复现,require等同于demands,reinterpretation of the Constitution同义替换applications of the Constitution’s protections。

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