Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch’s daughter, Elisabeth, spoke of the “unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions”. Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market. But “it’s us, human beings, we the people who create the society we want, not profit”.
Driving her point home, she continued: “It’s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous foals for capitalism and freedom.” This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International, shield thought, making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking.
As the hacking trial concludes—finding guilty one ex-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones, and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge—the wider issue of dearth of integrity still standstill. Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people. This is hacking on an industrial scale, as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This long story still unfolds.
In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place. One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, how little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired how the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing.
In today’s world, title has become normal that well-paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.
The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers.
36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by
[A]the consequences of the current sorting mechanism.
[B)]companies’ financial loss due to immoral practices
[C)]governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues.
[D] the wide misuse of integrity among institutions.
37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that
[A)]Glenn Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime.
[B]more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking.
[C)]Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge.
[D]phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions.
38. The author believes that Rebekah Brooks’s deference
[A]revealed a cunning personality.
[B]centered on trivial issues.
[C]was hardly convincing.
[D]was part of a conspiracy.
39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows
[A]generally distorted values.
[B] unfair wealth distribution.
[C] a marginalized lifestyle.
[D] a rigid moral code.
40. Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph?
[A]The quality of writing is of primary importance.
[B]Common humanity is central news reporting.
[C]Moral awareness matters in exciting a newspaper.
[D] Journalists need stricter industrial regulations.