The boy (主语) likes (谓语) English (宾语).
The clever boy likes English.
The boy with a book in his hand likes English.
The boy who is full of imagination likes English.
The clever boy who is full of imagination with a book in his hand likes English.
注：主语中心词为the boy, 可以通过加形容词、介词短语、定语从句及其组合等成分使主语复杂化，从而增加理解难度。考研(课程)翻译中的主语考点多为修饰成分繁多的主语。
The boy likes English very much.
The boy likes English out of interest.
The boy likes English influenced by his parents.
The boy likes English, hoping that one day he can go abroad.
The boy liked English when he was five years old.
The boy likes American English.
The boy likes English, the international language.
The boy likes English which is the most widely spoken language in the world.
The boy likes English spoken by many people nowadays.
The boy likes English, a beautiful language, spoken by many people living in every corner of the world.
The girl (主语) is (系动词) Mary (表语).
The girl in a pink hat with a book in her hand is probably Mary a kind-hearted girl of inexhaustible energy which often amazes her classmates.
The event amazed the world.
What happened on that day amazed the world.
To hold the Winter Olympics in China amazes the world.
Holding the Winter Olympics in China amazed the world.
That China is to hold the Winter Olympics amazes the world.
He can hear me.
He can hear the strange sound.
He can hear anything happening in the building.
He can hear the sound from that building.
He can hear a girl crying in the building.
He can hear whatever happens in the building.
He decided to check what’s going on in the building.
He considered going to the building for a look.
They are beautiful.
They are in the zoo.
They are beautiful animals in the zoo.
They are interested in the new invention.
To see is to believe.
That is what we are talking about.
But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is critical that our nation and the world base important policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions.
并列句。第一个分句主干：science does provide us。其中with the best available guide to the future为状语修饰provide，the best available和to the future分别为guide的前置定语和后置定语，由此本句宾语被复杂化; 第二个分句主干：it is critical that...,其中，it为形式主语，that从句为真正的主语，从句主语为名词短语our nation and the world, base...on...为固定搭配，第二个that从句为judgments的定语从句，分词结构concerning...为judgments的后置定语。